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This article is about a fictional representation of a real world subject.

Four U.S. presidents are depicted on Mt. Rushmore. From left to right: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln.

The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The President leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

During its existence, the U.S. Presidency often came under the influence of the American branch of the Philosophers, a secret cabal consisting of the supposed true holders of power in the country. The President would ultimately assume the role of a puppet under the Philosophers' usurpers, the Patriots, until the latter's destruction in the early 21st century.

Since World War II, the President has frequently utilized a passenger transport plane called Air Force One. Spouses of the President used the title of "First" before their position (i.e. the First Lady of the United States being the President's wife). Since the passing of the 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, the President has a line of succession in the event of his being killed or otherwise incapacitated during his term in office, or removed via either impeachment or resignation, with the Vice President being next in line, followed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, up to the Secretary of Homeland Security, with nuclear authority being included within next in line.[1]

Described below are some examples of U.S. Presidents, in chronological order of their respective presidency.

George Washington

Statue of George Washington that is in front of Federal Hall.

George Washington was the first President of the United States, inaugurated on April 30, 1789. A statue of him stands in front of Federal Hall, located at 26 Wall Street in New York. Largely because of his status as the first president, he was later immortalized on Mt. Rushmore. As a result of this, his initials would later be applied to the Patriot AI, GW.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States, serving from 1801-1809. Prior to becoming President and the founding of America, he drafted the Declaration of Independence. He was also responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and the formation of the United States Navy (the latter in response to the Barbary Pirates). In large part because of this, he was later immortalized on Mount Rushmore, and by extension, had his initials applied to the Patriot AI TJ.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President, serving from 1861-1865. When he was elected, the South ended up seceding from the North, which ultimately resulted in the American Civil War, with Lincoln proceeding to have the North attempt to reunify the nation. Because of the situation, he underwent emergency powers and gave them up after the war was over. He was ultimately assassinated while watching the play Our American Cousin by John Wilkes Booth. Largely because of his role in the Civil War, he was immortalized on Mt. Rushmore, with his initials also being applied to the Patriot AI AL as a result.

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President, serving from 1901 to 1909. He was well known for expanding America to the extent that it got involved in world affairs, as well as instituting various reforms and trying to implement law and order and virtue. Largely because of these, he was eventually immortalized on Mt. Rushmore, and as a result, also had his initials applied to the Patriot AI TR.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, referred to as FDR, was the 32nd President, serving from 1932 up to his death in 1945, and was the only President to serve more than two consecutive terms (four by his death). He was also a relative to Theodore Roosevelt, a preceding president, though unlike Theodore Roosevelt who was a Republican, FDR was of the Democrat Party. A President during the Great Depression, he was responsible for creating the New Deal. In addition, he also backed Anastasio Somoza García's rise to power to gain American influence in Nicaragua, with him being quoted as saying "He [Somoza] may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch." He eventually died of a cerebral hemorrhage by Victory in Europe Day.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President, serving from 1953 until 1961. He gave orders to the legendary World War II hero The Boss, in June 1959, to undertake a secret mission to sabotage Soviet developments, due to the Missile Gap, which resulted in her abruptly leaving her protégé, John. The CIA, upon learning this, did not agree with the President going behind their backs, and took it out on The Boss.

John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his death in 1963. He was one of the few Presidents of the 20th century to have no previous ties with the Philosophers, something the CIA used to their advantage when trying to discredit The Boss.[2]

In 1961, Kennedy authorized a CIA-sponsored operation to support Cuban exiles in the overthrow the Castro regime, in what became known as the The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The invasion ultimately failed when Kennedy, wanting to neither commit the United States to the invasion of Cuba nor risk going to war with Castro's Soviet allies, refused to authorize air support for the rebels. The same year, Kennedy fell into disfavor with the Philosophers.[3] On September 25, he also gave a speech to the UN General Assembly stating that the creation and promotion of the organization was the only true alternative to war. He also promised on the same day to put an American on the moon by the end of the decade, something that eventually proved to be true in 1969, although Zero expressed doubts about it.[4]

The following year, Kennedy agreed to hand over Russian defector Nikolai Stepanovich Sokolov to the Soviets if they would withdraw their forward-deployed IRBMs and strategic bombers from Cuba, during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, and was succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson. His death came as a blow to then-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev's power base, with the Red Army's extremist faction seizing the opportunity to revolt against his leadership. In addition, his assassination also led to some conspiracy theories about it being an inside job, including how the assassin shot him via the Grassy Knoll.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Main article: Lyndon B. Johnson

Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974, when he became the only President to resign from office. His time as President coincided with the formation of the Patriots in 1970. Nixon was involved in the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty talks that Leonid Brezhnev was promoting, which resulted in the abandonment of a secret Soviet missile base on the San Hieronymo Peninsula.

Nixon resigned in 1974, after his involvement in the Watergate scandal was exposed by an FBI agent known as "Deepthroat."

Gerald Ford

Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977. Ford traveled to Vladivostok in November 1974, to meet with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev for the SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) treaty. CIA Station Chief Hot Coldman used this to his advantage during the Peace Walker Incident, ensuring that most of the White House cabinet were unavailable to make a decision regarding nuclear retaliation, in response to a seemingly imminent Soviet attack on the United States.

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan was the 40th President of the United States, serving from 1981-1989. He was well-known for being very hardline in his politics. He at one point nearly ended up assassinated on March 31, 1981 in front of the Washington Hotel, though he ultimately survived. This led to the end of the Tecumseh curse that plagued every president that had been elected on a year divisible by twenty. In a speech on March 8, 1983, Reagan famously called the Soviet Union the Evil Empire.

George Sears

Main article: Solidus Snake

James Johnson

Main article: James Johnson

President (2014)

A United States President in 2014 was forced to respond to the crisis caused by Liquid Ocelot's Guns of the Patriots project, during his term in office. When the U.S. military received reports on Liquid's preparations in the Middle East, the President authorized immediate action in order to thwart his planned insurrection against the United States.[5] After U.S. forces failed to prevent Liquid seizing control of the SOP system in Eastern Europe, the President delayed making an official announcement to the public, despite some media outlets starting to pick up on the story.[6]

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]


Hamilton was the President of the United States during the events of the World Marshal Incursions of 2018. In May of that year, he attempted to engage in talks with Pakistani President Farooq Salam regarding forming an alliance to stop anti-American sentiment in the FAMA region of Pakistan. However, he was redirected back to America after supposed jihadi insurgents attacked the base, backed by the PMC Desperado Enforcement LLC. In actuality, however, this was orchestrated by World Marshal Inc. (who was allied with Desperado, and framed Desperado for the attack) and Colorado senator and 2020 Candidate Steven Armstrong, as part of Operation Tecumseh to ensure a reignited war on terror. He ultimately returned to Pakistan sometime later, when he and Salam organized a joint task force to combat escalating terrorism. Hamilton was pragmatic and the type to do even really unscrupulous and lewd things just to raise his approval ratings, as remarked upon by Maverick member Kevin Washington, where he claimed bluntly that Hamilton would "strip naked and dance on his desk at the Oval Office" if he thought it would have bolstered his poll numbers.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Unconfirmed history

The following information has been detailed in official Konami-licensed media, written by various external authors. Its status in the Metal Gear canon is unconfirmed.[?]

Richard Nixon attended a meeting with Dr. Clark and U.S. Army general Jim Houseman in 1972, to oversee the progress of the government project Les Enfants Terribles, which his predecessor Lyndon B. Johnson had initiated.[7]

Behind the scenes

Presidents of the United States appear often within the Metal Gear series, sometimes as a brief mention, and other times as supporting characters. Games with historical settings feature fictional versions of real life Presidents, whereas those set during the 21st century feature entirely fictional characters, beginning with George Sears. Fictional Presidents were and have been created for games set in the future. Some of these characters' Presidency took place in the then future. They are Sears, who is the President in the 1998 video game Metal Gear Solid (MGS1; 2005), James Johnson, who is the President in 2001 video game Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (MGS2; 2009), the 2014 President in the 2008 video game Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots (MGS4), and President Hamilton in the 2013 video game Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance (2018).

Regarding 21st century Presidents, official timelines have mentioned actions attributable to those of the real world, such as the U.S. leading multilateral strikes on Iraq in 2003,[8] (George W. Bush), and a pledge to close the Guantanamo Bay prison in 2008,[9] (Barack Obama). In these instances, the Presidents are unnamed and are assumed to be their fictional counterparts in their respective articles.

Main series

The President is first canonically mentioned in MGS1, and remains unidentified for much of the game, until the final twist in the "Meryl" ending reveals that he is secretly Solidus Snake, the third clone of Big Boss. His name, George Sears, first appears in MGS2, and his successor James Johnson serves a major role in the game, being taken hostage by terrorists led by the former. Solidus intends to lead a new American revolution against the Patriots, his actions being inspired by George Washington. In addition, the AI GW is named after George Washington. The otherwise unidentified AI that contacted Raiden in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty was named JFK in the game's script, and John F. Kennedy himself, and more specifically his assassination and the various conspiracy theories therein was given an indirect mention in the New York Mirror review for In the Darkness of Shadow Moses: The Unofficial Truth where George Franklin, the in-universe reviewer of the book, cited "The Grassy Knoll" as an example of events that capture human imaginations regarding the recent American past.

John F. Kennedy first appears in archived film footage in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (MGS3), which is used for both the Virtuous Mission briefing and flashbacks. His initials, JFK, were first used in the script for MGS2, to identify the AI that communicates with Raiden, following the GW AI's supposed destruction. Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, appears in person during Naked Snake's award ceremony, following the success of Operation Snake Eater. Kennedy is also indirectly referenced by Drebin 893 in the Naked Sin epilogue of MGS4, when the latter cites the former's September 25, 1961 speech to the UN General Assembly.[10] He, or rather, his assassination, was also given an indirect mention in MGS2 in the New York Mirror, where the reviewer for In the Darkness of Shadow Moses: The Unofficial Truth, George Franklin, referred to the "Grassy Knoll" when making comparisons to the conspiracy at Shadow Moses, referring to where Lee Harvey Oswald was suspected to have fired the bullet that killed Kennedy.

Kennedy is the reason why the setting of MGS3 takes place the year after Hideo Kojima's birth rather than the year of, as the latter wanted to have Kennedy's assassination play a major role in the plot of MGS3. The Metal Gear Saga timeline implied that Kennedy's assassination had been arranged by the Philosophers due to his losing favor in them, although Peace Walker would later reveal that he had no prior ties to the organization.

Richard Nixon is mentioned in articles concerning the Watergate Scandal in both the Metal Gear Solid: Digital Graphic Novel and the Metal Gear Solid 4 Database, an event that is mentioned in the manual of the non-canon Snake's Revenge,[11] and in MGS1.[12] However, the Database mistakenly identifies him as the 36th President, rather than the 37th. Nixon is also referred to indirectly in the Raymond Benson novelization for MGS1, as the gray-haired President of 1972. At the 2009 Tokyo Game Show's showing of Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima implied that Nixon's resignation from the Presidency would factor into the events of the game,[13] though this is not featured in the final version.

Aside from the gray haired President and Solidus, the MGS1 novelization also briefly references Franklin D. Roosevelt and his administration, when Dr. Clark speaks about the reason for choosing the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico to undergo the Les Enfants Terribles project.

A President is mentioned in MGS4 by both Meryl Silverburgh and Roy Campbell, in Act 3 and Act 4, respectively, although it is unknown whether he is the Vice President who took over Johnson's role after his death in MGS2 or another individual holding the office altogether. In addition, George Washington was given an indirect mention with the AI GW, which had been named after him. Aside from this, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln were all given indirect mentions regarding three of the other proxy AIs, which had been designated TJ, TR, and AL after the respective presidents, who alongside George Washington had been affixed to the Mount Rushmore National Memorial. In addition, the four Rushmore presidents' surnames were used for the passwords for the iPod songs "Gekko", "Desperate Chase", "Midnight Shadow", and "Mobs Alive", respectively.

The President during November 1974, as mentioned in Peace Walker, is implied to be Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States (1974-1977). Ford succeeded Nixon when he resigned from office as a result of the Watergate scandal. He also created the Nuclear Emergency Support Team. Although he did briefly visit Vladivostok to negotiate missile reduction, the meeting was erroneously referred to as SALT II, which was actually the name of his successor, Jimmy Carter's attempted negotiations with Russia on the matter. Also, a Vice President is mentioned in-game even though Ford himself did not have one until December 19, 1974. The Phantom Pain later confirmed that Ford was the President mentioned and corrects the previous mistakes by saying that he visited Vladivostok alone (with no mention of a Vice President) and that SALT II still hadn't gone into effect due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

In addition to Ford, there are also brief references to Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson in the game, and the briefing files "Messages from EVA," detailing The Boss's activities between her leaving Big Boss and the events of the Virtuous Mission, imply that the President mentioned is Dwight D. Eisenhower (although he is not identified by name). Similarly, FDR is also briefly indirectly mentioned by Amanda, quoting him when referencing why Somoza rose to power and America's involvement in his rise.[14]

Although not actually mentioned in-game, Barack Obama's "A World Without Nuclear Weapons" speech was referenced in a blog by Kojima during the development of Peace Walker. He also briefly quoted a line of dialogue made by Hot Coldman in this blog entry, implying that Coldman's dialogue was inspired by Obama's speech.[15]

Like in MGS4, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Theodore Roosevelt were all given indirect mentions relating to the AI pod designations used for the four AI weapons in the Peace Walker project, including the Reptile Pod, with Strangelove claiming that the designations for the AIs had been Coldman's idea in a briefing file.

Although no president is directly mentioned in any of the missions for Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, George Sears is alluded to in Déjà Vu's incomplete ending: If the player fails to recreate all the scenes before leaving, Miller, in a similar manner to Ocelot's call to Solidus in the ending of Metal Gear Solid, will report Snake's status to his superior, regarding the other scenes he missed.[16]

On the official website timeline for Metal Gear Solid: The Legacy Collection, real life President Barack Obama is mentioned as having supplied the speech about "A World Without Nuclear Weapons" in April 2009, although James Johnson is actually the President during this time in the Metal Gear continuity. Obama was later quoted in a hidden ending for Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, unlocked after clearing nuclear disarmament mode on FOB mode. In the main game, aside from the aforementioned that Ford was the president alluded to in Peace Walker, it also briefly referenced Ronald Reagan, the president at the time of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. Reagan's reference to the Soviet Union as being the Evil Empire was a reference to the Galactic Empire, the main antagonists for Star Wars, who had been referred to as the Evil Empire in the opening credits for the first film.

Spin-off games

In Metal Gear: Ghost Babel, the President is contacted by the main antagonist, Augustine Eguabon, on two different instances: the first being after Metal Gear GANDER launches a dummy warhead at Nevada, and the second shortly after Solid Snake destroys the power plant.

In Metal Gear Acid, the President meets up with the Secretary General, Chairman, Secretary, and Prime Minister to discuss the events of the Lobito Island Incident, as well as deciding on an action drastic enough that they consider labeling themselves as the "bad guys."

Lyndon B. Johnson is indirectly mentioned in Portable Ops, and can be partially glimpsed during a flashback to Big Boss's award ceremony for Operation Snake Eater.

Halting the assassination of President Hamilton is a major plot point and is part of the climax in Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance. While little is revealed about the President in the main game, Codec calls establish what he is like. Besides Hamilton, George Sears Is also referenced frequently in the game, in large part because his training of child soldiers in Liberia is made into an important plot point via the Sears Program. George Washington is also given an indirect mention in Chapter R-02 of the same game when George introduces himself, where he comments that his name is "the name of all dem American presidents" (with Raiden briefly recognizing the name due to it being the same name as Solidus Snake, himself a former President).

Despite not actually appearing in the Metal Gear series, events relating to George W. Bush are referenced in the final chapter of Metal Gear Rising. The first of these is in an optional Codec call to Kevin Washington, in which Raiden jokes that Senator Steven Armstrong is probably athletic enough to dodge shoes from angry protestors, alluding to Bush's feat during a speech he gave in Iraq on December 21, 2008.[17] The second of these is a comment that Raiden discovers on the internet, referring to Pakistan as a member of the "Axis of Evil," a term coined by Bush to describe governments accused of sponsoring terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction. The third of these is during Armstrong's rant about his motives, where he mentions that Americans will fight for themselves and "not for oil!", alluding to a common critique of President Bush's invasion of Iraq.

Similarly, when beating Raiden and divulging his motives for remaking America, Armstrong briefly shouts "We're gonna make America great again!", which is similar to a statement Ronald Reagan made when he ran for the President. Coincidentally, this would be used again as a campaign slogan by Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential election, which happened three years after Metal Gear Rising was released.


The Snake Tales mission A Wrongdoing refers to the President being taken hostage in the Big Shell.

In the third MG America Facts on the official Metal Gear Twitter account, the Mt. Rushmore Presidents (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt) are referenced as being the namesakes of the four proxy AIs, with a picture of Mt. Rushmore being included in the post alongside a picture of GW from MGS4.


George Sears and James Johnson
Mount Rushmore

Non-canon appearances


Notes and references

  1. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Naked Snake (Big Boss): Kaz. Where's the President? // Kazuhira Miller: ... Last I heard he was in the middle of SALT II negotiations in Vladivostok. // Snake: With the president gone. Nuclear launch authority passes to the next person in the chain of succession. // Miller: The Vice President's gone too. so after him comes the speaker...
  2. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    EVA's tapes.
  3. ^ Metal Gear Saga Vol. 2, Kojima Productions (2008). YouTube
  4. ^
  5. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Meryl Silverburgh: Listen to me, Snake. After reporting what happened in the Middle East to my superiors, I wrote up a threat assessment. The President's finally realized the danger Liquid's little rebellion poses, and has called for immediate action. Now I've got more bodies than I know what to do with - a whole joint Army-Marines team. They're already on site, mixed in with the US forces here. We're ready to strike Liquid at any time.
  6. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Roy Campbell: The President has yet to make an official announcement. But the media is starting to pick up on it.
  7. ^ Metal Gear Solid novelization by Raymond Benson, Del Rey Books (2008).
    The President is not identified by name in the novel, but is implied to be Richard Nixon.
  8. ^ Metal Gear Saga Vol. 2.
  9. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes timeline.
  10. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Drebin 893: I'm guessin' the UN is gonna be more important than ever, what with multilateralism and all. A certain President [John F. Kennedy] said it best back during the Cold War... For in the development of this organization rests the only true alternative to war.
  11. ^ Snake's Revenge (manual), Ultra Games (1990).
    "Bugging Kit: Inspired by Watergate, this device allows you to overhear enemy conversations taking place behind walls.
  12. ^ Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Solid Snake: Who are you? // ???: Just call me "Deepthroat". // Snake: Deepthroat? The informant from the Watergate scandal? // Deepthroat: Never mind about that.
  13. ^ Kojima talks Peace Walker - GameSpot:
    "The trailer's premiere took up about a third of Kojima's presentation, but he still had quite a bit to say about the game. As mentioned, Peace Walker takes place in 1974, which is 10 years after Metal Gear Solid 3. In real history, the year had some turbulent events. Kojima hinted that one event in particular, President Nixon's August 1974 resignation, will factor into the game's storyline. "
  14. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing Files > Briefing Library > Amanda > Nicaragua > Sandino > Sandino's Assassination
    Amanda Valenciano Libre: He [Somoza] had the Americans backing him, that's why. They didn't want to hand over power to a rebellious general [Sandino]. // Big Boss: Even so, it's hard to believe Washington would give its blessing to a guy like that. // Amanda: The American President at the time [FDR] put it this way: "Somoza may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch." In other words, better a dog or los sapos (Somoza and counter-revolutionaries) than an anti-US regime.
  15. ^
    『核なき世界』をプラハで宣言したオバマ大統領がノーベル平和賞を受賞した。 ようやく時代が動き出したのか。 ピースウォーカー計画始動?そうなる事を願いたい。 『平和は歩いては来ない』 『お互い歩み寄るしかないのだ』 ("President Obama, who talked about a "world without nuclear weapons" in Prague, has won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    Has history finally made its move?
    Could this be the beginning of the Peace Walker Project? I hope so.
    "Peace won't come to us." "We have to meet it halfway."
  16. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Deja Vu
    Kazuhira Miller: Yes, sir. Yes, he made it to the goal... What's that, sir? There were still SCENES left to recreate? Yes, sir. Yes, I- Understood.
  17. ^

External links