Metal Gear Wiki
Metal Gear Wiki

The artistic direction of the Metal Gear series has often been influenced by other forms of media, mostly due to Hideo Kojima's love of movies, music and literature.


The 007 series is cited by Kojima as the films that influenced him the most regarding the birth of Metal Gear.[1] Secret missions on which hang the fate of the world, espionage action and solo infiltration all inspired the setting of the Metal Gear games.[1]

In Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Major Zero is revealed to be a major 007 fan in a radio conversation with Para-MedicBig Boss's design in the original MSX2 version of Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake was inspired by Sean Connery, who was well known for the role of James Bond, which was also given an indirect reference when Naked Snake (the future Big Boss), who himself was not fond of the 007 franchise, mentioned that he couldn't help but "compare himself" to Bond in a negative manner. The theme song and opening for Metal Gear Solid 3, Snake Eater, was derived to some extent from the James Bond openings and soundtrack.

Although not in the series itself, the Super Smash Bros. Brawl rendition of the Metal Gear song "Theme of Tara" had beats that were derived from similar musical themes from the 007 franchise.

The prosthetic hand worn by Vladimir Zadornov and Venom Snake is derived from that of Bond villain Dr. Julius No.[2]


George Orwell's book 1984 largely influenced the storyline of Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain which is set in the year 1984. The slogan "Big Boss is watching you" which can be seen on posters visible at Mother Base was derived from 1984's "Big Brother is watching you." Ocelot quotes the book when he says "Doublethink" and "two plus two equals five." Finally, the interrogation room at Mother Base is named "Room 101." Skull Face, when relaying his plans to Venom Snake during the Jeep ride, briefly paraphrases one of the sayings of the Ministry of Truth in the book, "this war is peace."

2001: A Space Odyssey[]

2001: A Space Odyssey is Kojima's all time favorite movie. Influences from the film can be seen throughout the Metal Gear series.

Two of the heroes in Metal Gear Solid share their names with characters from 2001. Hal Emmerich's first name is derived from the film's supercomputer antagonist, HAL 9000, an association of which the character disapproves. After Solid Snake reveals that his real name is "David" in the "Meryl Dies" ending, Snake suggests that he and Emmerich should take a trip to Jupiter, the destination of the HAL-controlled spacecraft and astronaut David Bowman in 2001. To a lesser extent, Dr. Clark was partly named after Arthur C. Clarke, the author of the story.[3]

In Metal Gear Solid 2, the tanker and the computer terminal are named "Discovery" and Monolith (mistransliterated as "Monorith"), respectively, referring to the ship and the evolution-inducing object in 2001.

Both Strangelove and Huey Emmerich mention 2001 to Big Boss in their respective briefing tapes, with it being implied that the doctors' previous discussions with one another on the film significantly improved their relationship. Huey considers naming his future child after the computer HAL.

In Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, Doktor says "And here I thought you were going to bring me back a monolith!", after learning that Raiden's flight wouldn't break the thermosphere.


The split screen views that are occasionally shown (such as prior to Naked Snake and Major Ocelot's duel in Bolshaya Past Crevice) in Metal Gear Solid 3, were cited by Kojima as being based on 24.[4]

Kiefer Sutherland, who portrays the show's protagonist Jack Bauer, voices Big Boss in the English versions of Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes and The Phantom Pain.

Apocalypse Now[]

In the MGS3 Countdown, Kojima compared the Cobra Unit's use of emotion-based codenames to Colonel Kurtz's last words of "The horror... the horror..." in the film.[5]

Richard Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries" playing while Morpho inbounds in Ground Zeroes is derived from a scene of the film.


Shortly after Gray Fox fights Solid Snake in the lab in Metal Gear Solid, Fox, while undergoing painful discharges, will suddenly scream "The...the mediciiiiiine!", referring to a scene from the anime movie Akira where Tetsuo demands for a stabilizer due to the instability of his psychokinetic powers beginning to mutate his arm.[6]

Austin Powers[]

Kojima had stated that one element in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty was inspired by the spy satire series Austin Powers, although he did not reveal which element. However, if the player positions a naked Raiden against a raised torture bed in Metal Gear Solid 2, and presses against it, he will raise his arms and the in-game camera will zoom out to a drink can in the foreground, its straw obscuring Raiden's crotch in a similar manner to scenes in the Austin Powers films.

A bonus scene in Metal Gear Solid 3, relating to EVA removing a transmitter implanted into Naked Snake by Ocelot in Tikhigornyj: Behind Waterfall, occasionally cut to their shadows undergoing a wrestling match/dance while their actual actions differed, referencing similar scenes that occurred throughout the Austin Powers franchise, in particular The Spy Who Shagged Me and Goldmember. Similarly, both Metal Gear Solid 3 and Austin Powers during these scenes had a soft jazzy bass beat with a drum beat for the soundtrack.[7]

Back to the Future[]

During a Game Over in Metal Gear Solid 3, Roy Campbell will chastise Snake for killing certain key characters as it caused a time paradox. This was an allusion to Campbell's Japanese voice actor, Takeshi Aono, who voiced Doctor Emmett Brown in the Japanese dubs of the Back to the Future franchise.


Hideo Kojima listed Bladerunner in his top 5 favorite movies of all time, and it's influence isn't lost on the series. The antagonist of Bladerunner Roy Batty parallels Liquid Snake, being light haired artificially created humans who seek to extend their short lifespans by any means possible.

A major plot element of both series is that certain characters age faster due to genetic modification, which was intended as a means of controlling them, and both Bladerunner and Metal Gear Solid contain a message about embracing life while you still can instead of fighting to live longer and suffering.

Bravo Two Zero[]

The book covering the exploits of the eponymous Special Air Service unit during the Gulf War was considered an inspiration for Liquid Snake's backstory. In fact, during the 1997 TGS advertisement, the book could briefly be seen on Hideo Kojima's desk.[8]

Castlevania series[]

According to Hideo Kojima, the first Castlevania and it being a smash hit was one of the reasons he decided to become a game developer and develop his own hit game.[9]

Coin Locker Babies[]

Kojima cited Ryu Murakami's novel, Coin Locker Babies, as something that left an impression on him.[10]

Criterion Collection Films[]

The spinning peace sign logo for loading scenes in Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker is based on the spinning logo for the Criterion Collection.[11]


Portions of the plot for Metal Gear 2, including Gray Fox and George Kasler's (originally George Kessler) names, Fox and Gustava Heffner's failed romance and the latter's failed defection, Solid Snake's former CIA membership, and the plan to infiltrate Zanzibar Land, were similar to the novel Crossfire by J.C. Pollock.[12]

Crying Freeman[]

Elements of Meryl Silverburgh's character in Policenauts, and to some extent Metal Gear Solid, were taken from the character Kitche from the manga Crying Freeman.[13][14]

Divine Comedy[]

Dante Alighieri's narrative poem largely influenced the storyline of Metal Gear Survive. The location Dite, the Charon Corps, and the AI pod Virgil AT-9 are all named after a location and characters from the poem. In addition, Goodluck quotes from the poem and once refers to Virgil as "Beatrice", another character from the poem.

Dark Star[]

The iDroid's female voice was inspired by the computer from the 1970 film Dark Star, which also served as an inspiration for the Mother computer from Alien.[15][16][17]

The Deer Hunter[]

Solid Snake and to an extent Naked Snake/Big Boss's usage of a bandana was based on Robert de Niro's character in The Deer Hunter. On a similar note, Solid Snake's face during Metal Gear Solid was modeled in part after Christopher Walken's character from the same movie.[18]

Die Hard 2[]

The slow motion of Granin's corpse being launched out of the drum can after Volgin punched it into a stack of drum cans was taken from a scene in Die Hard 2 showing Bruce Willis' character, John McClane, ejecting from an exploding plane.[19]

Django (1966 Italian film)[]

This film, alongside other Spaghetti Westerns, was the inspiration of the design and characterization of Revolver Ocelot.[20]

Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb[]

In Metal Gear Solid, Revolver Ocelot, while Solid Snake is locked inside the torture device, mentions riding the bomb all the way to history, alluding to a famous scene from the film where a bomber pilot after accidentally falling with the bomb when it was released, proceeded to cheer as if riding a horse cowboy style all the way to detonation.

It is one of the movies that Para-Medic mentions in Metal Gear Solid 3.

The film heavily influenced the plot of Peace Walker. The name of Dr. Strangelove is also taken from the film.

Escape from New York[]

Kurt Russell's character, Snake Plissken, influenced the name of the original game's protagonist, Solid Snake.[21][22] The name "Pliskin" is later used as an alias by Solid Snake in Metal Gear Solid 2. In addition the insertion sequence of Metal Gear Solid 1 (and also Twin Snakes) resembles that of Escape from New York.

Escape from Los Angeles[]

Solidus Snake's overall character, namely his rejecting the Patriots' control, was partly influenced by Snake Plissken's depiction in the sequel.

Eyes Without a Face[]

The Dhekelia SBA Memorial Hospital in The Phantom Pain was partly modeled after a mansion from the film (the patterns carved inside the doors, the sink in Venom Snake's room).

Ishmael's design, Quiet's jump out of the window, and The Fury's disfigured face were also inspired by the film. After defeating The Fury, some of the flames form a buch of masks. These look similar to the mask worn by the protagonist of the film.

The movie "traumatized" Kojima when he first saw it and it ranks among his top ten of scariest films.[23]

Prior to the final battle between Raiden and Solidus Snake in Metal Gear Solid 2, a group of doves can be seen flying away. This is a reference to John Woo who frequently features white doves in his films before the final showdown. Woo drew the inspiration for this trademark of his from the ending scene of Eyes Without a Face.

Full Metal Jacket[]

The instruction manual for Metal Gear 2 contained the anonymous mercenary song "If I Die in a Combat Zone," a reference to Full Metal Jacket, which features a similar song.

The scene in which Sniper Wolf shoots Meryl in Metal Gear Solid was also influenced by the film.[21][24]

The Fly[]

Naked Snake's oxygen mask was inspired by the film.[25] In addition, Para-Medic tells Naked Snake that the mask reminded her of the film.

For a Few Dollars More[]

During the events of the Shagohod chase, Major Ocelot uses a Colt Single Action Army Revolver with a white stock against Naked Snake and EVA. This was a reference to a similar weapon utilized by Colonel Douglas Mortimer in the film.[26]

The Fugitive[]

Naked Snake's dive into the waterfall in order to escape the Ocelot Unit is a direct reference of the famous dam scene in the 1993 movie, The Fugitive.[27]

The Fury[]

Psycho Mantis' powers were inspired by another fictional psychic character from the 1978 film The Fury, for which Kojima told his motion designer to watch a scene in which a man flies.[21]

Gaspard in the Morning[]

Yasutaka Tsutsui, the author of Paprika and The Girl Who Leapt Through Time, published Gaspard in the Morning in 1992. The novel was a "meta-text" about a player immersed in an online video game. It influenced Metal Gear Solid 2, "especially Kojima's consideration of fan responses to the conception and creation of Raiden, the game’s unexpected protagonist."[10]


The Electromagnetic Wave Gun's properties mirror the use of the Proton Packs in the first Ghostbusters, particularly the climax where the titular main characters were forced to merge the Proton Packs' energy streams to seal Gozer's dimension away.

Godzilla movies[]

Kojima, when talking about the differences between Snake and Raiden in Metal Gear Solid 2, compared Solid Snake to Godzilla in that he was an unnatural creation and could not be controlled. On that note, the design for Metal Gear RAY was largely made as Yoji Shinkawa's response to the controversial reimagining of the creature in the 1998 film by Roland Emmerich.[28]

The Gear REX's backstory in the Hunting Quest mode in Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker was largely based on that of Godzilla. In addition, the use of a banana as a R&D weapon was based on the film Godzilla vs. Gigan.

In Metal Gear Survive, Reeve refers to the Lord of Dust as "[t]he king of monsters."

The Great Escape[]

Kojima cited The Great Escape as a large influence on the development of the original Metal Gear, in which the character attempts to run away and escape without a fight, while avoiding the sight of the enemy.[21][29] The Great Escape also acted as the in-universe inspiration for Major Zero's codename handle during the Virtuous Mission, "Major Tom."


In Metal Gear 2, the display on the radar when the game enters the alert phase is very similar in the design to the titular mecha's alert display in Gunbuster, a 1988 anime series by GAINAX. Both use the Japanese kanji characters 危険 (kiken) meaning "danger" prominently.[30][31] The studio's name (stylized as GA-INAX) is also referenced in the Metal Gear 2 user's manual as the company responsible for manufacturing the toilets in.

The Guns of Navarone[]

The idea of an indomitable warrior with special skills, infiltrating a fortress and accomplishing an impossible mission to destroy a powerful new weapon, were all influences on Metal Gear.[32] The background of Captain Keith Mallory, such as his fluency in multiple languages and his being an expert rock climber, inspired that of Solid Snake.[32] Kojima was particularly impressed by the scene depicting the main characters stealthily scaling a cliff,[32] which is echoed in the openings of both Metal Gear 2[33] and Ground Zeroes.


Otacon hiding in his locker prior to the fight between Solid Snake and Gray Fox in Metal Gear Solid is based on Laurie Strode seeing the Boogeyman from a closet she was hiding in.[34]


Python resembles the horror movie villain Pinhead from Hellraiser, who is known for having a pale head covered in needles.

Jason and the Argonauts[]

The film is commented on by Para-Medic in Metal Gear Solid 3.

Venom Snake being chased by Metal Gear Sahelanthropus in The Phantom Pain is a homage to the film.[35]


According to Hideo Kojima in his book The Creative Gene, elements of The Boss's character, including her "What's it going to be" speech to Snake (and to a lesser extent a similar speech given by Gene in Portable Ops) was modeled after the eponymous mother cat character in the 1950 novella Jessie in an overarching theme on motherhood.[36]

Kōbō Abe[]

Hideo Kojima cited Japanese author Kōbō Abe as one of his biggest literary influences.[10]

Most notably, one of Abe's works, Hako Otoko (The Box Man), served as the direct inspiration for the trademark cardboard box technique in the series, due to his being a fan of the work.[37]

Kojima also claimed with one of the writers for Wired magazine, Tim Rogers, that Abe's book Kangaroo Notebooks played a key role in the development of Metal Gear Solid 2.[38]

Leon the Professional[]

Yoji Shinkawa when designing Meryl originally envisioned her as being 13 years old or younger, similar to the female protagonist of the film Matilda (portrayed by Natalie Portman). However, after reading the script for Metal Gear Solid, he ultimately redesigned her to be older in order to have her plausibly wield a Desert Eagle.

Lethal Weapon[]

Solid Snake's transceiver portrait in the original MSX2 version of Metal Gear 2 was modeled after Mel Gibson's character of Martin Riggs from Lethal Weapon.[39][40]

Lord of the Flies[]

The scrapped Mission 51 of The Phantom Pain and the location it was set at is called "Kingdom of the Flies." The rotten pig-head on Eli's ship, as well as the naming of Ralph, the boy whose death Eli sets up to trigger a revolt of his fellow child soldiers, are all derived from the book. His conch shell was also taken from the book. To some extent, Eli himself resembled Jack Merridew when he became chief, barring his being blonde instead of a redhead.

The Love Suicides at Amijima[]

The two dolls Marionette Owl had accompanying him, Osan and Koharu (mistransliterated as Kohal outside Japan) are references to the main character's wife and lover, respectively, in the play.

Lupin III[]

Kojima has compared the personality of Solid Snake with Arsène Lupin III of Monkey Punch's Lupin III franchise of manga and anime. He stated that, in "MGS, Snake became this sharp-tongued, Lupin III-like guy who flirted with women and told lots of jokes".[41]

Mad Max 2[]


Mad Max with Dog (above); Venom Snake with D-Dog.

Hideo Kojima has stated that Venom Snake's constant silence in The Phantom Pain was directly inspired by the silence of the main character in Mad Max 2, which he cited was among his favorite movies of all time.

There are a couple of similarities between Venom Snake and Mad Max, they are both accompanied by a canine companion, Venom with D-Dog, Max with Dog. Finally, Snake's leather jacket bears a resemblance to Max's. Venom Snake and Mad Max also were driven to vengeance that left them asocial due to traumatic events in the past (the destruction of MSF in the case of Venom Snake, and Max's family being brutally murdered in the case of Mad Max).

Maniac Cop[]

A cut boss planned for Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake was called Maniac Cop, which was most likely a reference to the 1988 slasher film of the same name.[42]

Masked Rider[]

Naked Snake's posture during the HALO jump was derived from the titular superhero in the 1971 Japanese live-action series Masked Rider (also known natively as Kamen Rider).

Dead Cell and the Cobra Unit's roles in Metal Gear Solid 2 and Metal Gear Solid 3, respectively (as well as the latter group's manner of death) were derived from the Kaijin from Masked Rider as well as Power Rangers.[43]

The Matrix[]

Although technically not a direct influence on the series or the game itself, Hideo Kojima mentioned that the themes he intended to communicate in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, and to a certain extent several special effects (such as Vamp running up a wall), were essentially put into movie format by the Wachowski Brothers (as they were known at the time) for the 1999 film The Matrix.[44]

In the Unique Weapons trailer released shortly before the release of Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, Raiden was seen using the L'Etranger's pole function to defeat several cyborgs in a similar manner to Neo defeating a bunch of Agent Smith clones in the Burly Brawl scene of The Matrix Reloaded.


Prior to the announcement of The Phantom Pain, Kojima created a fake studio called "Moby Dick Studio" to showcase the first trailer for the game.

The burning whale created by Tretij Rebenok during the hospital escape references the titular whale, Moby-Dick.

The story of Moby-Dick is narrated by a character named Ishmael who boards a ship named Pequod, which is commanded by captain Ahab in his quest to kill the whale Moby-Dick who took Ahab's leg on a previous journey.

In an interview with Famitsu, Kanji Yano mentioned that Kojima intended for the themes of Moby Dick to be used since the start of development, and also implied that Kojima replaced Huey with Big Boss for the role of Ishmael because it would have otherwise left a pro-American bias regarding morality that Kojima did not intend to have.[45]


According to Kojima as well as Matsuhana in an interview, the scenes involving the Marine Corps in the RAY hold of the Discovery, particularly showing the large mass of them during Scott Dolph's speech and Ocelot's interference, was based on similar soldier scenes from the 1998 Disney animated film Mulan.[46]

The Mummy[]

The ghostly faces made by The Fury's death throes were taken from the 1999 remake of The Mummy, where the titular antagonist Imhotep conjures a sandstorm bearing his face (and in the case of the sequel, a wave of water).[47]

Neon Genesis Evangelion[]

Kojima is a fan of the anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion. In addition to influencing Zone of the Enders, it has also influenced the Metal Gear series, particularly Metal Gear Solid 2, which has a number of plot elements in common with Evangelion.[48]

North by Northwest[]

Alfred Hitchcock's compositional arrangement and the camera work in North by Northwest and other films inspired Kojima's directing style in Metal Gear Solid.[49] Like Hitchcock, Kojima limited the player's perspective through various camera views to create a sense of unity with the character and the tension of infiltration, made possible by switching between the first person view and the objective view (mostly a bird's-eye perspective), and the corner view camera that visualizes the distance between the player character and the enemy.[49]

Pink Panther[]

The style of humor for the Metal Gear franchise, which sometimes depicts sudden and unexpected moments of humor in very serious situations, was derived from the Pink Panther film franchise. In particular, the scene where EVA and Naked Snake make love in the ending of Metal Gear Solid 3 was derived from the original film.[50]

Pineapple Army[]

The opening narration sequence for Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake featured a Beretta with a magazine and bullets in part of the montage, which was similar to one of the cover art for the manga Pineapple Army, in particular Operation 1.[51]


Hideo Kojima stated that he had based Raiden's trek through Arsenal Gear on Pinocchio's journey inside Monstro the Whale in the novel and Disney film of the same name. The names of locations in Arsenal are organs of the human gastrointestinal tract to reinforce this. Ocelot and Venom Snake also mention the novel while discussing the escape from the hospital in Cyprus.

Planet of the Apes[]

Kojima's impressions of the anti-war themes in Planet of the Apes inspired the inclusion of his own anti-war messages in the Metal Gear Solid games.[52]


The initial design for Gray Fox in Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake was inspired by actor Tom Berenger, in particular his role as Staff Sergeant Robert "Bob" Barnes, the main antagonist of the film.

Points of Impact[]

Although not actually used in the game itself, this book was considered to be used for the basis of the sniper battle with The End.[19]


Many of Peace Walker's gameplay elements were mentioned by Kojima to have been inspired by Pokémon.[53]

Power Rangers[]

Dead Cell and the Cobra Unit's roles in Metal Gear Solid 2 and Metal Gear Solid 3, respectively (as well as the latter group's manner of death) were derived from the Kaijin from Masked Rider (Kamen Rider) as well as Power Rangers (Super Sentai).[54]

The colored Genome Soldiers in Portable Ops Plus were derived from the Power Rangers (Super Sentai).


Jungle Evil's name in the original MSX2 version of Metal Gear 2, Predator, and to some extent George Kasler's description of Jungle Evil, alluded to the creatures from the film franchise of the same name.[55]

Colonel Volgin's actions aboard the Hind in the ending of the Virtuous Mission in Metal Gear Solid 3 were specifically requested by Kojima to be modeled after Carl Weathers' character of George Dillon from Predator.


The design for Roy Campbell was inspired by Richard Crenna's portrayal of Colonel Samuel Trautman.

Hideo Kojima likened Raiden's character to that of Rambo.[56]

Solid Snake and Big Boss wearing bandanas is a reference to Rambo.

The first mission in Metal Gear Solid V, where Venom Snake rescues Miller from the Soviets in Afghanistan is a direct reference to Rambo III.

Resident Evil[]

Masami Ueda, the composer for Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, would later act as the main composer for the first three Resident Evil games. This was given a subtle reference in the Albert Wesker spirit battle in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, which utilized as its BGM Theme of Solid Snake.

Although not a true influence, Kojima did acknowledge that comparisons could be made between Metal Gear Solid and the then-recently released first game of the Resident Evil series regarding heart-racing action.[57] Coincidentally, both games also had a major character that wore sunglasses and aided the protagonists before being revealed to be a mole for the enemy in the climax (S.T.A.R.S. Alpha Team Captain Albert Wesker in Resident Evil, Master McDonnell Benedict Miller in Metal Gear Solid, or more accurately, Liquid Snake posing as Miller regarding the latter).

If the player inputs the Konami Code on the title screen for Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, Raiden, in a voice over, will say the title of the game with a slight echo and menacing tone, which is a reference of the standard title screen used for the Resident Evil series. The company that partly made Metal Gear Rising, PlatinumGames, includes several people who previously worked at Capcom, the company responsible for the Resident Evil series.


The drug narc from Policenauts, and by extension, the soda of the same name from Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, was derived from the drug "Nuke" from RoboCop 2.[58]

Kevin Washington's claim that Detroit was the first American city to privatize the police force and comprise it with cyborgs in Metal Gear Rising is a reference of RoboCop's premise.

Running Man[]

The Metal Gear 2 boss Running Man was based on the Arnold Schwarzenegger film of the same name.[59]

Seven Samurai[]

Kojima cited MSF being asked for help in the beginning of Peace Walker as being reminiscent of Seven Samurai.[2]

Silent Running[]

Huey Emmerich's nickname was derived from the crippled service robot from the film, as a subtle insult towards him being crippled.

Star Wars[]

The Boss's post-mortem advice for Naked Snake to remember the basics of CQC when fighting Ocelot for the final time was taken directly from Obi-Wan's communicating with Luke in the climax of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.[60]

In Metal Gear Solid 4, Solid Snake briefly compares Liquid Ocelot's Outer Haven to the Death Star.

In Metal Gear Solid 2: Bande Dessinée, Solid Snake says, "Great shot kid, that was one in a million" to Raiden after the harrier jet is shot down. Han Solo also said this line in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.

In the Destroy the Anti-Air Emplacements mission, when Miller tells you to evacuate quickly due to the impending arrival of what was suspected to be attack aircraft from a third party, he signs off with "I've got a bad feeling about this", which is a frequent line used by the protagonists in the Star Wars saga whenever they're about to enter a dangerous situation.

The Terminator[]

The cover art for the original Metal Gear was taken directly from a screencap of Michael Biehn's character of Kyle Reese in The Terminator.[39] In addition, the Bloody Brads from the same game were a direct reference to the titular characters from the same film. In the original releases of the game, the references were more explicit with their being named "Arnold," referring to Arnold Schwarzenegger, the action film actor, politician, and bodybuilder whose well known role is as the titular character.

The twist about Raiden not being Solid Snake was based on the plot twist that Schwarzenegger's Terminator was not the bad guy in Terminator 2: Judgment Day.

In the Secret Theater film, Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eraser, Raiden attempts to travel to the past to kill Naked Snake (and later his son, Solid Snake) so he could become the main character of the series, mirroring the main plotline of The Terminator franchise, which dealt with the titular character trying to kill the main protagonist in order to prevent the birth of a future opponent. At one point in the film, Raiden briefly spies Naked Snake escaping the Groznyj Grad prison with a red heads-up display, mirroring that of the Terminator.

In Ground Zeroes, Raiden (by this point a Cyborg Ninja) goes back in time again, this time to aid Big Boss and the Militaires Sans Frontières in taking out several Body-Snatchers that are threatening Cuba and by extension the entire world, mirroring how future installments of Terminator had the titular cyborg traveling back in time to defend the main protagonist(s) (John Connor mainly) from another Terminator sent to kill him.

In the Make it Right viral marketing and to a lesser extent Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance itself, Raiden and other cyborgs' point of view prominently displays data and graphs, mirroring the titular character's frequent usage of the HUD throughout the franchise.

The Wizard[]

Jimmy Harks' nickname of "Jimmy the Wizard" is a reference to the titular character of the 1989 movie The Wizard, who has an innate skill at playing Nintendo Entertainment System games.


The characters of Raiden (real name Jack) and Rosemary were derived from the protagonistic love couple from the film.[61]

The sinking tanker in Metal Gear Solid 2 is also a reference of Titanic.[61]

Tuesday Suspense Theater[]

The scene where lightning struck above Colonel Volgin upon the latter learning from The Boss that Snake's most likely after the Philosophers' Legacy was derived from similar techniques from that series. Kojima also admitted that the delivery was a crude way of depicting emotions especially in an action game.[19]


Liquid's line about having all the "flawed, recessive genes", and to some extent the entire premise of the Les Enfants Terribles project, was a reference to the comedy film Twins starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and Danny DeVito, playing the roles of Julius and Vincent Benedict, the perfect and flawed twin, respectively.[62]


Master Miller's redesign in Peace Walker was derived from the airline pilot in the film, according to Hideo Kojima.[63]

White Star[]

Although not actually used in the game itself, this book was considered to be used for the basis of the sniper battle with The End.[19]

The X-Files[]

Hideo Kojima described the "evil" in Metal Gear Solid 2 as being on the same level as that in the sci-fi TV show The X-Files: the Patriots are an intangible entity yet at the same time a massive menace to the world.[64]

The aliases "Deepthroat" and "Mr. X," used by Olga Gurlukovich's Cyborg Ninja, are also those of two characters in The X-Files, who act as informants for FBI agent Fox Mulder.[65]

Yoichi Funato[]

Kojima cited that Ocelot's name was derived from Yoichi Funato's book The Summer of the Ocelot.[66]

Notes and references[]

  1. ^ a b Hideo Kojima, "Hideo Kojima at the Movies: 007", Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (13.05.2003).
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c The Literary Source Material For Metal Gear Solid
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b c d
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b c d "Hideo Kojima: Game Guru, Movie Maniac," by Steven Kent, Gamers Today (1999).
  22. ^
  23. ^]
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ Hideo Kojima, "Hideo Kojima at the Movies: The Guns of Navarone", Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (04.10.2002).
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b c Hideo Kojima, "Hideo Kojima at the Movies: The Guns of Navarone", Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (18.11.2002).
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ Metal Gear Solid, commentary by Hideo Kojima
  38. ^
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^
  41. ^ Glifford, Kevin (February 10, 2010). Snake Beats Mario, Is Coolest Video Game Character Ever. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010.
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
    Kojima made a very interesting comment: "I have seen the movie four times (laughs). I like this type of work. What I was planning to do in my next project, they pretty much made into a motion picture. We were planning on certain things like characters running on walls and such, but they've beat me to it (laughs)."
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^ a b Hideo Kojima, "Hideo Kojima at the Movies: Hitchcock Films", Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (08.01.2003).
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^ Hideo Kojima, "Hideo Kojima at the Movies: Planet of the Apes", Official PlayStation 2 Magazine (20.02.2003).
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^
    Sounds similar to another game that became a hit recently.
    Kojima: Comparisons to Resident Evil seems to be unavoidable based on its appearance. (laughs) However, I think you will experience a completely different sense of heart-pounding excitement in Metal Gear Solid. There won’t be such thing as having to readjust to the controls because the perspective has been changed. Basically your perspective remains the same throughout the game and your character will always go up when you press up on the directional pad. I wanted to realize a simple and efficient control system for players who have never played a 3D game before without making them feel out-of-place.
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid 2: Making of
  62. ^
  63. ^
    "I ordered my staff Kazuhira Miller to make a look like the captain starred in "West World" directed by Michael Crichton but no one in our studio knew it."
  64. ^ Metal Gear Solid 2 Grand Game Plan, Hideo Kojima (Konami Japan, 1999).
  65. ^
  66. ^

External links[]

See also[]