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This article is about the legendary soldier Big Boss. You may be looking for his mentor The Boss or his phantom.

"We have no nation, no philosophy, no ideology. We go where we're needed, fighting not for country, not for government, but for ourselves. We need no reason to fight. We fight because we are needed. We will be the deterrent for those with no other recourse. We are soldiers without borders, our purpose defined by the era we live in."
―Big Boss[src]

Big Boss, real name John,[3] also known as Jack, and formerly known as Naked Snake, Vic Boss,[4][5][6] Ishmael, Saladin, or simply Snake, was a renowned special forces operative and mercenary commander. He founded U.S. Army Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND, along with the mercenary company Militaires Sans Frontières, and was one of the founding members of the Patriots. Big Boss later established the military states of Outer Heaven and Zanzibar Land as bases for his companies, in order to realize his ambitions of creating a nation for soldiers. Considered by some as "The Greatest Warrior of the 20th Century," he earned such monikers as "the Legendary Soldier"[7] and "the Legendary Mercenary,"[8] feared in combat by both friend and foe as a hero and a madman.[9]

During the Cold War, Big Boss was an apprentice to The Boss, the so-called "Mother of Special Forces," and later served as a black ops field agent for the CIA's FOX Unit, under Major Zero. Having his genetic code used as part of the government project Les Enfants Terribles, Big Boss was the genetic father of Solid Snake (his subordinate and later nemesis), Liquid Snake and Solidus Snake. He was also the mental and physical template for his body double and former subordinate, Venom Snake, with whom he shared the title of "Big Boss".


Early years[]

Young Big Boss

Photos of Jack as a young man.

Born in 1935,[10] Jack’s military career dated back to the 1950s, becoming The Boss' disciple in June 1950, and fighting in the Korean War.[3] The Boss taught Jack extensively regarding combat, weaponry, survival, espionage, destruction, psychology and foreign languages (such as Russian), later developing CQC together. Through the experience, Jack grew to hold The Boss in great respect and reverence, viewing her not only as a mentor, but also as a parental figure of sorts. They went their separate ways on June 12, 1959.[11]

In 1954, Jack was involved in the Bikini Atoll test of the first airborne detonation of a hydrogen bomb. Unlike most of his friends present during the test, Jack did not develop symptoms of leukemia, thyroid cancer, or radiation poisoning, but was rendered sterile.[12]

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]

In 1961, Jack carried out covert operations alongside Python during the early stages of the Vietnam War, before America officially participated. He later stated that Python was one of the few soldiers he could completely rely on in battle. The two also played poker together, leaving Python owing Snake money. The two were later involved in a mission together where Python was shot and presumed dead.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Prior to August 1964, Jack served in the Green Berets for several years. By late 1964, he had become experienced at sniping in urban and marine environments,[13] and had eaten snakes during previous survival training exercises,[14] feats which would prove useful in future missions. By this time, Jack had also been awarded various commendations, including the Army Achievement Ribbon, the Good Conduct Ribbon, Defense Distinguished Service Ribbon, Korean Service Ribbon, a ribbon that resembles the Vietnam Service Ribbon, and the Distinguished Service Cross Ribbon, along with several others.[15]

Operation Snake Eater[]

See also: Virtuous Mission and Operation Snake Eater

On August 24, 1964, under the command of Major Zero, the supervision of The Boss, and the assistance of Para-Medic, Jack took part in the Virtuous Mission as a member of the CIA's FOX Unit, in which he was to rescue defecting Soviet scientist Nikolai Stepanovich Sokolov. Operating under the codename "Naked Snake," he infiltrated the Soviet region of Tselinoyarsk after undertaking the world's first High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) jump. Evading KGB troops in the region, Snake successfully made contact with Sokolov and escorted him to safety, following a brief battle with Major Ocelot of GRU. Before he knocked the defeated Ocelot unconscious, Snake complimented the young officer on his gun-fighting skills, but suggested that his rather flashy style was better suited to revolvers than pistols. As Snake escorted Sokolov back to the extraction point, the professor explained to him that the Soviet government had forced him to work on a new revolutionary weapon, the Shagohod. Fearing the destructive power of this weapon, Sokolov begged Snake to make sure to warn his government about its existence and see to its destruction.

However, the mission ended in failure with the surprise defection of The Boss, and Snake was injured during a confrontation with her, in which he was thrown from a rope bridge. Sokolov was taken by The Boss's Cobra Unit as a gift for the rogue GRU colonel Yevgeny Borisovitch Volgin. The Boss also personally gave Volgin a stolen Davy Crockett Weapon System, along with two American nuclear warheads. Volgin immediately decided to test out his new weapon, by blowing up Sokolov's test facility, with the injured Snake witnessing the explosion up close as he waited for his emergency extraction.

250px-Naked snake4

Snake, armed with pistol and knife, wearing camo uniform and face paint.

Following his rescue, Snake was placed in an advanced intensive care unit where he was interrogated by agents of the U.S. Government, regarding The Boss's defection.[16] A week later, Zero showed up at to the infirmary ward where Snake was kept in custody, and briefed him on the situation. The government had at first been planning to use them as scapegoats for the failed mission by charging both of them with high treason for their connection to The Boss, but had dropped the idea due to more pressing matters arising. Volgin's detonation of the nuclear warhead had created an international incident, as Soviet intelligence had detected both the explosion and the American plane that had delivered Snake in the area, and now the Soviet government were demanding an explanation. The Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, was personally willing to believe that a rogue element of his intelligence service had been behind the detonation, but had pointed out that without any substantial evidence to back this claim, he would be unable to convince his cabinet and the Soviet army, who were both pressing for a nuclear retaliation against the Americans, of the U.S. government's innocence in the matter. Khrushchev was able to buy the Americans a week to find the evidence, but warned that failure to do so would in all probability trigger a full-scale nuclear war. So instead, the U.S. government now had an offer for Snake and Zero. They would both be cleared of any involvement in the defection under the condition that Snake, again under Zero's command, would return to Tselinoyarsk, eliminate The Boss, destroy the Shagohod, and recover Sokolov and the remaining nuclear warhead. This mission was designated Operation Snake Eater. For his support team, Para-Medic was once again signed on, along with the new member "Sigint", a technology and weapons expert.

Despite not having completely recovered from his previous injuries, Snake was redeployed to Tselinoyarsk via a D-21 drone prototype.[17] Zero briefed him on the way, telling that his first order of business was to meet up with a contact with the codename ADAM, an American mole in the KGB. Unbeknownst to him, however, he was secretly being followed by XOF commander Skull Face, who had been ordered to follow, assist and clean up after Snake. Shortly after his landing, The Boss appeared before him on a white horse. Snake demanded an explanation for her actions, but she refused to provide one, and instead disarmed him with ease, dismantled his gun, and destroyed the D-21 prototype. Unbeknowst to Snake, also she used this oppotunity to plant a transmitter on his person so she could keep track of his movements. The Boss then told him to leave the area, saying she would have to kill him if he persisted in following her, before riding away.

Undeterred, Snake continued to where he was scheduled to meet with ADAM, but he instead met a mysterious woman who identified herself as EVA and claimed to be ADAM's partner. She provided him with a new gun, intel on Sokolov's whereabouts – telling him that he was held at Graniny Gorki, a Soviet research plant in the area – and a scientist disguise to help him infiltrate the base. Though Snake was wary towards EVA to begin with, as she failed to give him the correct countersign to prove her identity, he became convinced that she was on his side when she helped him to fight off another attack from Ocelot, who attempted to enact revenge on Snake for his humiliating defeat during the Virtuous Mission. He did, however, also prevent EVA from shooting the fleeing Ocelot, allegedly because he was "still young," although he had actually taken a liking to him.

Making it to Graniny Gorki, Snake donned his scientist disguise and infiltrated the complex. As he searched for Sokolov, he came across the bitter Soviet scientist Aleksandr Leonovitch Granin, Sokolov's professional rival, who drunkenly told him about the prototype designs for Metal Gear he was working on and how he planned to share them with a friend in America as revenge against his superiors for not appreciating his work. Granin also told Snake of the Philosophers' Legacy, and explained that it was responsible for making Volgin as wealthy and powerful as he was. When Granin learned that Snake was an American agent and on a mission to extract Sokolov, he happily told him that Sokolov was actually being held at the military compound of Groznyj Grad where he was being forced to continue his work on the Shagohod, and then handed him a key card that would help him gain entry to the fortress, in the hopes that Snake would succeed in his mission and that having Sokolov out of the way would help him advance his own career.

During his trek through Tselinoyarsk, Snake fought and defeated various members of The Boss's Cobra Unit, including The Pain, The Fear, The End, and ultimately The Fury. He also had another run-in with Ocelot, who challenged him to a gun duel at the Bolshaya Past crevice, which ended inconclusively when Ocelot fled the scene after noticing one of The Pain's hornets scouting the area. Faced with having to infiltrate the Groznyj Grad fortress, in order to locate Sokolov and get closer to the Shagohod, Snake was told to incapacitate the GRU officer, Ivan Raidenovitch Raikov, who was Volgin's secret lover, and steal his uniform in order to infiltrate the base. Snake's infiltration attempt did, however, fail when he happened to run into Volgin, who saw through Snake's disguise, resulting in his capture after losing another hand-to-hand encounter with The Boss.

Snake awakened with a bag over his head in an interrogation room to the sounds of Sokolov's apparent death at Volgin's hands. Volgin then turned his attention to Snake, repeatedly hitting him and electrocuting him with his lightning powers, while demanding to know the details of his mission and if he had any accomplices. When Snake refused to break, The Boss stepped and tried to convince Volgin that his attempts were in vain as she had personally trained Snake to never give in to torture, but a frustrated Volgin instead intensified the torture while asking Snake if he was after the Philosophers' Legacy he had in his possession, before telling him that he had hidden the Legacy in an underground vault in Groznyj Grad, so he would never get his hands on it. During the torture, a transmitter fell from Snake's body. When Volgin demanded an explanation, The Boss claimed that she had planted it on him to track his movements. Volgin then demanded proof and that she and Snake were not colluding against him and asked her to cut out Snake's eyes. Before The Boss could so, however, EVA, in her disguise as Tatyana, intervened and demanded that they stop, causing Ocelot to step in and accuse her of being the spy who had aided Snake. He decided to settle the question with a game of Russian Roulette, and prepared to shoot EVA. Snake, attempting to protect EVA, bumped into Ocelot, causing the gun to discharge in his face, which saved her life at the cost of his own right eye. Satisfied with what had taken place, Volgin departed, telling a distraught EVA to join him in his room. Ocelot, meanwhile, congratulated Snake on surviving the torture and punched him in the back (unbeknownst to Snake, placing the transmitter on his body again), before also departing. The Boss, meanwhile, covertly handed Snake a gun and a fake death pill and told him to make his escape when he had the chance. Before the guards arrived to grab Snake, EVA leaned in on him and quickly explained her hidden escape route from Groznyj Grad, telling him to meet her in the sewers under the complex.

Back in his holding cell, Snake managed to outwit the prison guard, Johnny, and made his escape from Groznyj Grad. By sneaking into the sewers, Snake headed to the rendezvous site EVA had told him about to meet her there. EVA, however, radioed in to warn that his escape had been discovered and that the Ocelot Unit was hot on his heels. Trying to evade their pursuit, Snake found himself surrounded at a dead end where the sewer dropped off into a waterfall. Ocelot showed up once more, demanding that the unit did not interfere as he gloated about getting to enjoy his revenge and loaded his revolver with a single bullet. As Ocelot cycled through the empty chambers, Snake narrowly escaped by jumping from the waterfall and landing in the pool below, almost drowning in the process and suffering a near-death experience involving the deceased Cobra member, The Sorrow. Snake reunited with EVA behind a waterfall in Tikhogornyj, retrieved his equipment from her, and adopted the use of an eye patch. He returned to Groznyj Grad and successfully destroyed the Shagohod's hangar, eventually defeating Volgin and destroying the Shagohod itself.

Snake and EVA then made their way to Rokovoj Bereg to board a WIG that EVA had stashed away as an escape vehicle. With enemy soldiers still on their tail, EVA was severely injured in a motorcycle crash, needing to be escorted through Zaozyorje by Snake while maneuvering around a search team. Upon their arrival to the lake, however, The Boss was waiting, and she confronted Snake in a field of white flowers. She reminded him of his duty as a soldier, prior to engaging him in a final duel. To ensure that Snake would carry out his mission, The Boss radioed Russian fighters, who were only ten minutes away from their position, to begin bombing Rokovoj Bereg. She gave Snake some parting words, which would come to greatly shape his worldview and haunt him for the rest of his life:

"There is nothing more for me to give you. All that's left is for you to take my life by your own hand. One must die and one must live. No victory, no defeat. The survivor will carry on the fight. It is our destiny. The one who survives will inherit the title of Boss, and the one who inherits the title of Boss will face an existence of endless battle."
―The Boss to Naked Snake
The Boss' death

Snake kills The Boss, his former mentor, after she urged him to finish her off.

Snake fought his mentor with great reluctance, and after a fierce battle, his mastery of CQC now matching hers, he eventually incapacitated her. As Snake approached the injured Boss, she gave him the Philosophers' Legacy, explaining that she had stolen it from Volgin earlier, and told him to keep it safe. She then calmly gave him her gun and urged him to finish her off. Snake hesitantly obliged and pulled the trigger.

Snake and EVA then started to make their escape in the WIG, but before they could do so, they were once again confronted by Ocelot, as he used a flying platform to board the plane and challenge Snake to another fight. After an inconclusive fist fight, Ocelot instead suggested that he and Snake should settle it in a game that combined Russian roulette and quick draw, but not before they exchanged their real first names with each other (Adamska and John). After they both fired off their guns without killing each other, an amused Ocelot revealed that he had played a trick on Snake and that the bullet was a blank. He gave Snake a wry smile as he hinted they would probably meet again. He then jumped off the plane, allowing Snake and EVA to leave the area.

EVA and Snake eventually made their way to Galena, Alaska, where two sought refuge in an abandoned cabin, sharing together a night of tumultuous passion. As Snake awoke the next morning to find EVA had left him sometime during the night, having taken the Philosophers' Legacy with her, he also discovered a tape recording she had left behind for him before she abandoned him. In it she explained that she had never been the real EVA, but was actually a triple agent working for China. While under orders to kill anyone who knew this, she had nevertheless decided to spare his life, denying that she had done so because she had fallen in love with him, but instead because she had personally promised The Boss that she would keep him alive. She also told him the truth about The Boss' mission: namely, that The Boss had been a double agent all along, the U.S. government having staged her supposed deflection in an attempt to both steal the Philosophers' Legacy from Volgin and destroy the Shagohod in one fell swoop. However, as a result of Volgin's unanticipated decision to detonate one of the American nuclear warheads in a display that would destroy Sokolov's research facility, the U.S. was forced to go with a change in plans, having decided that sacrificing The Boss' life at the hands of Snake, her own favorite trainee and disciple, would be the best way of outwardly proving America's innocence to the Soviets. The Boss herself had agreed to this alteration of the original plan, willingly giving up her life and reputation to save both her country and the world from nuclear war, all the while knowing that history would later remember her both as a traitor and a war criminal.

Big Boss ribbons HD

Service ribbons and the Distinguished Service Cross.

Snake eventually rendezvoused with the U.S. government, and was lauded for his efforts. In a ceremony at Langley Air Force Base, Snake was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and the codename of "Big Boss" by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Meanwhile, members of the government talked about his great skills as both a soldier and agent, considering that he might be the right man to train and head a new unit of other people with his abilities.

The newly-christened Big Boss, however, found no feeling of pride or accomplishment in the whole affair. Having learned the true nature behind Operation Snake Eater, he only felt shame. When Zero tried to congratulate him, Big Boss was unable to look him in the eye, and quietly left the ceremony.

As he stood over The Boss' anonymous grave at Arlington National Cemetery, Big Boss came to the conclusion that he had lost sight of what he was fighting for, and with it his patriotism for his country. Because of this, as well as his blaming himself for allowing it to happen, he retired from FOX.[18]

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]

Unbeknownst to him, his disposing of Colonel Volgin had also made him a hero to the people of the Soviet Union.[19]

Post-Snake Eater[]

Snake's retirement from war was short lived, and his attempts at becoming an instructor or hunting guide failed.[20] In 1966, Big Boss encountered a war orphan known as Frank Jaeger during the Mozambican War of Independence. After defeating him and nursing him back to health,[21] he escorted him to a rehab facility where he could be taken care of. The rehab facility later gave Jaeger over to the CIA for use in the Perfect Soldier Project. During this time, he also attempted to find EVA, but was unable to find a trace of her for years.[22]

San Hieronymo Incident[]

Main article: San Hieronymo Incident

Naked Snake (Big Boss), circa 1970.

Although he had been labeled Big Boss and became a legend in the black ops world due to his exploits, he continued to use the codename Naked Snake because he felt that he was unworthy of the title of Boss. In November 1970, the FOX Unit was considered to be rogue after its members organized a revolt, capturing a Soviet base in South America, on the San Hieronymo Peninsula. Big Boss was captured by FOX and taken to the peninsula, where he was imprisoned and interrogated. Likewise, Big Boss was also charged with treason by the Department of Defense for supposedly spearheading the FOX rebellion. The agent who led the rebellion managed to gather FOX members who specialized in solo sneaking missions and kill off all those who opposed, with Snake believed to be the only one capable of doing so.[23]

Big Boss met fellow prisoner Roy Campbell, a member of the Green Berets. Big Boss managed to contact Para-Medic, who told him that both he and Major Zero had been charged with treason by the Pentagon, believing them the masterminds behind the revolt. Big Boss and Campbell escaped and went on to persuade former Red Army soldiers, along with disillusioned FOX operatives, to join them and rise up against the revolt. Para-Medic and Sigint also helped take down FOX and clear their names.

MPO Snake

Naked Snake leads a rebellion against FOX on the San Hieronymo Peninsula.

During this time, Big Boss met Null (Frank Jaeger) and the two fought on a number of separate occasions. He also met Python once again, who had not died during the Vietnam War, but was kept alive by the CIA and trained as an "anti-Snake." Despite this, Boss still managed to defeat Python. Big Boss also learned that FOX operative Cunningham's actual mission from the Department of Defense was to force Gene, the leader of the revolt, to launch Metal Gear to tarnish the CIA's reputation. Big Boss killed Cunningham and went on to kill Gene, although not before learning that, contrary to what was told to him, The Boss's death was actually planned from the very beginning by "a single deviously-cunning strategist."

With the help of the Red Army soldiers he had recruited, Big Boss destroyed Gene's nuclear missile. Gene left Big Boss with a large cache of funds and supplies that he intended to use in the creation of Army's Heaven.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

In 1970, Big Boss officially formed FOXHOUND, to carry on the tradition of the FOX Unit.

The Patriots and Les Enfants Terribles[]

Halved patriot

Big Boss, Dr. Clark, Zero, and Donald Anderson founded the Patriots.

After Zero obtained control of the Philosophers' Legacy, Big Boss was invited to join in his formation of a new organization, comprising Sigint, Para-Medic, Ocelot, and himself, which would later be known as the Patriots. Dedicated to achieving a unity of thought and awareness in honor of The Boss's final wishes, Big Boss was chosen to be an icon for the group, having known The Boss better than anyone else.

Around this time, Big Boss participated in a mission to rescue EVA from Hanoi in 1971, who later joined Zero's organization herself. Stories about Big Boss, riddled with exaggeration and misrepresentation, were disseminated by Zero among the masses, elevating him to the status of an idol; a symbol to control the people. Friction developed between the two as Zero's lust for power grew, with Big Boss resenting his role as the puppet.

Afraid of losing Big Boss, Zero planned to finish up a secret project called Les Enfants Terribles wherein Big Boss's DNA was used to create genetically enhanced soldiers.[note 1] The clones Solid Snake, Liquid Snake, and Solidus Snake were produced in this project and were collectively known as the "Sons of Big Boss." Other heirs to Big Boss's genetic legacy included the dozens of failures produced early in the experiment, in addition to the abortion of six fetuses during the creation of Liquid and Solid Snake. Big Boss eventually found out about the project, which became the last straw for him. Determined to oppose Zero and his plans, Big Boss broke away from the Patriots.

Big Boss left the United States and FOXHOUND, drifting from country to country as a lone soldier. During this time, he returned to Vietnam to join an LRRP (Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol), and fought alongside SOG (Studies and Observation Group), the Green Berets and the Wild Geese, completing more than 70 missions.[1]

Meeting Kazuhira Miller[]

In late 1972, Big Boss was hired by the Colombian government to work with its army. There, Big Boss's unit ambushed guerrilla leader Kazuhira Miller and his unit, wiping them all out except for Miller. Big Boss later established his own mercenary group known as Militaires Sans Frontières (Soldiers Without Borders), or MSF for short, and recruited Miller as second in command. In order to ensure Miller was pardoned by the base commander instead of interrogated and/or executed, he also blackmailed the base commander with a private journal dealing with subject matter that could result in the latter's execution.

Peace Walker Incident[]

Main article: Peace Walker Incident

On November 4, 1974, Big Boss stationed MSF in the Barranquilla Coast of Colombia, where he was approached by Ramón Gálvez Mena and Paz Ortega Andrade from Costa Rica, a "Nation without a Military." Since the Cuban Missile Crisis, Latin America had become a key to maintaining the power balance between East and West. Despite this, an unknown armed force stationed themselves in various regions of the country, claiming to be an "international police force" hired by the Costa Rican Development Agency (known as CODESA). Gálvez doubted their claim believing they were actually employed by "la cia."


Big Boss, circa 1974.

Big Boss initially refused to hold back the invasion, not wanting his unit to become "dogs of war." Big Boss eventually agreed when Gálvez showed Big Boss a recording from Paz's missing friend in which the voice of The Boss could be heard. Big Boss accepted, taking Gálvez gift of an off-shore base and establishing it as the new Mother Base for the Militaires Sans Frontières.

Six days later, to preserve peace in the region, MSF moved into action. Big Boss and Miller quickly discovered that the CIA was bringing nukes into Costa Rica. On his way to Nicaragua, Big Boss enlisted the help of a Sandinista National Liberation Front unit led by Amanda Valenciano Libre to find out more information, while undercover as a Colombian ornithologist, though he was eventually forced to take Amanda to Mother Base after she was injured while trying to save her younger brother Chico.

Big Boss rescued Chico and headed to Mount Irazu, where the nukes were stationed. There, he encountered Pupa after overhearing an argument between Huey Emmerich and Hot Coldman. Learning about the Peace Walker project, as well as an AI facility in a Mayan Pyramid, Big Boss recruited Huey to MSF.

At some point, Snake and Miller executed a mission with the aid of a shared cardboard "Love Box" disguise, successfully bypassing both an enemy truck and an AI weapon. However, the cramped space between them caused problems, which along with Miller's sunglasses effectively blinding him, caused them to trip up on occasion, with Miller also complaining about Snake's supposed bad breath. Eventually, they became so annoyed with each other that Snake inadvertently blew their cover, lifting up the box while still within enemy sights and expressing irritation at the Miller's complaints.[24]

Afterwards, he managed to help Cécile Cosima Caminades, the missing friend of Paz, as well as learn a disturbing truth; The Boss's voice he had heard was actually an AI programmed in her image, known as the Mammal Pod.

Big Boss encountered Strangelove, who hated him, and took out Chrysalis and Cocoon. He attempted to stop Peace Walker from reaching Nicaragua, but ultimately failed. Boss followed Paz, who had been captured by Coldman, and found Peace Walker. Gálvez (whose real name was Vladimir Zadornov) revealed he was actually using Snake so the Soviet Union could conquer Central America with ease. Big Boss was forced to stop Peace Walker from causing a nuclear war after Coldman activated the launch sequence.


Big Boss leads MSF against Peace Sentinel, in 1974.

At the end of the fiasco, Snake decided to formally identify himself as Big Boss after learning of The Boss "putting down her gun", which he viewed as a betrayal of herself as a soldier. He removed The Boss's former bandana from his head following Peace Walker's sacrifice. Big Boss, under Kaz, Huey, and Strangelove's suggestion, commissioned the creation of Metal Gear ZEKE using parts salvaged from the AI weapons.

At some point, Big Boss initially approved of a sauna being installed at Mother Base when suggested by Kazuhira Miller, but ultimately decided against it, especially after an incident where one of the MSF personnel, Armadillo, fainted with enough force to send the seagulls flying away and also had to be hospitalized for an entire month, despite being boasted as being as "sturdy as a tank." He also proceeded to do an investigation on what actually happened there, eventually learning from both Swan and Gazelle that Miller had been in the room at the time, with the former even doing "soap play" with Miller at the time, and ultimately confirmed his suspicions when Miller inadvertently revealed that he knew Armadillo fainted in the room when he didn't even mention who fainted. This led to Big Boss to tell Miller off in the showers for his womanizing behavior setting a bad example on the MSF forces, which quickly escalated into a severe brawl. Afterwards, he sentenced Miller to a year of cleanup duty as punishment, apologizing to all involved, and keeping a check on his philandering nature. Paz witnessed this and recorded this event in her diary without their knowledge.[25]

While ZEKE was nearing completion on Mother Base, Big Boss deduced there was a spy among the ranks of MSF. Zadornov managed to escape several times while Zeke was being built, and the man hinted as much after Big Boss shot him in self defense. Before they could think of what this could mean, Big Boss received word that ZEKE was hijacked, and rushed to confront the hijacker.

To their shock, MSF learned that the hijacker was Paz (who was actually Cipher agent Pacifica Ocean). The mission was planned by Cipher in order to get Big Boss to rejoin them. After he refused, Paz threatened to launch a nuke at the East Coast and frame the MSF. Big Boss defeated ZEKE and although Paz was seemingly killed, he suspected she survived. Miller admitted that he too was working for Cipher as a businessman, though Big Boss forgave him. In time, they would come to be known as the founders of "Outer Heaven."

Snake and Miller eventually discovered Paz's tapes and diary left behind on Mother Base. It was clear that her commitment to Cipher was wavering but with Paz's disappearance, nothing else could be certain.

At some point, Snake used Miller as "Subject D" for the R&D Team's Human Slingshot project, due to a lack of volunteers, upon receiving a report on the weapon.[26] At another point, Snake and at least three MSF soldiers successfully executed a mission near a beach, although Snake was so exhausted that he delayed returning and let his men leave on the extract chopper, much to their gratitude, while requesting a second chopper to pick him up.[27]

Camp Omega[]

Warning: The following events occur in the pseudo-historical Side Ops in Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes; its level of canonicity is ambiguous.

Side Ops[]

Afterwards, Big Boss alongside the further expanding MSF participated in various missions within the United States Naval Facility in Cuba.


Big Boss awaits deployment to an American black site in Cuba.

On December 3, Big Boss infiltrated the base to assassinate an infamous sniper duo from the Laotian Civil War, Glaz and Palitz, after MSF were hired by KGB contacts of Miller's. After neutralizing the targets, they began to suspect the base in Cuba due to the sniper team being terrified to such an extent that it even exceeded their fear of death itself.

On December 7, Big Boss returned to the base to ensure the extraction of MSF Intel Unit agent Hideo. Intending to rendezvous with Hideo at the heliport, Big Boss provided cover fire from a Hind while the agent escaped in a stolen jeep. However, when Hideo's jeep was disabled and he ended up knocked out, Big Boss was forced to disembark from the chopper to directly intervene, taking out an APC before carrying Hideo to the chopper. He also shot down a Blackhawk when it tried to pursue the Hind as it retreated.

On December 21, MSF was hired by the U.S. military's Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to rendezvous with their undercover agent at the base, with Big Boss infiltrating by hiding in the back of a truck. Following suspicions that the base had been secretly converted to a black site, Big Boss located and interrogated the agent, who revealed that he had stowed away information he had uncovered, being unable to directly hand it over due to the high level of security. Big Boss retrieved the tape cassette containing the information after deducing its location and escaped. Through this tape, MSF was able to discover the existence of a man known only as Skull Face, as well as confirm the JCS's suspicions regarding the base.

On January 9, 1975, Big Boss sabotaged all the base's anti-aircraft emplacements with C4, in preparation for a MAGTF assault arranged by the JCS. The MAGTF's amphibious assault carrier was detected earlier than expected by the base's defense systems, forcing Big Boss to operate under a full alert, ultimately destroying an APC, whose cannon would have threatened the advance. He also rescued a prisoner who was a member of the MSF Intel Team that had been captured on an earlier reconnaissance of the base. As he was about to retreat, however, he learned from Miller that two unidentified aircraft had shown up on radar, and were headed towards his location. He narrowly managed to escape the base via chopper, witnessing the aircraft's bombardment during his departure, and causing MSF to suspect Cipher's involvement in the affair.

Side Ops information ends here.

Ground Zeroes Incident[]

Main article: Ground Zeroes Incident
Mgs gz gp

Big Boss infiltrating Camp Omega.

In February 1975, Big Boss and Miller received a request by the IAEA to inspect Mother Base.[28] Although the official reason given was because they had purchased nuclear fuel from Uzbekistani officials, they both knew that the real reason was because Cipher influenced them as revenge for their earlier defeat. Big Boss stated that they send the IAEA an official letter of refusal due to their status as a private company, not a nation under the NPT.[29] However, Huey, the only MSF member who supported the inspection,[29] ended up sending another letter that indicated that they changed their minds, forcing Big Boss to allow the inspection to happen because it would have otherwise drawn too much suspicion. In preparation, various AFVs save for ZEKE were relocated to shore as well as various trouble-making personnel ordered to take mandatory R&R.[30] All civilians save for Huey, including Cécile, were given papers to travel back to their home countries. The remaining members of the FSLN group made rendezvous with Amanda who was already at Cuba. Big Boss also learned that Strangelove had resigned from MSF and left Mother Base a week earlier (he had been away on an assignment at the time and thus had been unaware before then).[28]

Ten days later, Big Boss's suspicions about Paz's survival were eventually confirmed, when he learned that she had been rescued by a Belizean fisherman while she lay adrift in the ocean. Cipher suspected Paz was compromised as a double agent, and was being interrogated and imprisoned within Camp Omega, a maximum security military prison facility located on the southern tip of Cuba. Big Boss suggested to kill her due to her knowledge of MSF but Kaz opted to instead rescue her as she was their only viable link to Cipher. They decided to retrieve her later, as they had the inspection to worry about.[31] Unfortunately, after Chico ended up sneaking off a supply ship that was refueling at Santiago de Cuba en route to Amanda in Havana,[32] as well as his being captured, Big Boss and Miller were forced to revise their plan to do a solo rescue op, after Chico confirmed their locations in an SOS transmission. Big Boss volunteered to be the one to undergo the operation, thereby missing the inspection.[33] For the mission, Big Boss assembled a skeleton crew to assist him, including the helicopter pilot Morpho, and one of his top operatives, an exceptionally talented MSF medic, to provide medical support if need be.

On March 16, forty hours since Chico's last contact, Big Boss had arrived and scaled the cliff. During the infiltration, U.N. inspection teams departed from Mother Base, with Miller holding down the fort. When nearing Chico's cell, Miller radioed in telling him that they notified Amanda about Chico's current status, and expressed some disturbance regarding her oddly being elated about being "ready for the worst" regarding her brother. Big Boss eventually located Chico, although he was later forced to choke him into unconsciousness due to the latter panicking at the sight of him, and thus risking his getting caught by the guards. He later carried Chico all the way back to the chopper, due to his ankles being pierced with a nut and bolt.

Afterwards, Big Boss inquired Chico about Paz's status. He was then supplied with a cassette tape containing Paz being tortured by various personnel, with Chico claiming that she had died. Big Boss managed to deduce Paz's location after further inspection of the tape, and managed to retrieve her, who was alive, albeit unconscious, and took her back to the chopper. Shortly after boarding, however, the medic looked over Paz and decided emergency surgery had to be carried out to remove a bomb implanted in her abdomen. Big Boss assisted the medic in holding down Paz as he cut her open, and was also able to find the bomb implanted in her; he immediately tossed it out of the chopper.

The team's return to Mother Base occurred in the middle of an attack by XOF forces. Miller and Big Boss provided support and cover fire for MSF soldiers attempting to evacuate the base via chopper, narrowly escaping before the strut collapsed. After telling Big Boss that the inspection was actually a smokescreen, a furious Miller tried to interrogate Paz irritably, only to be restrained. Big Boss eventually witnessed Paz's death when she exploded after jumping out, learning that she had in fact been implanted with two bombs rather than one as earlier believed. Big Boss only suffered limited injuries from the explosion as the medic jumped in front of him and shielded him with his body as the bomb went off, thereby taking the brunt of the explosion himself. Regardless, the explosion made the MSF chopper spin out of control, sending it into a collision course with a pursuing XOF chopper.

Later, Big Boss, Miller, and the medic were treated in a hospital emergency room, where both Big Boss and the medic's lives was saved by a medical team but, Big Boss would fall into a coma due to injuries sustained from the crash. The medic, meanwhile, was then placed into an artificially induced coma.

Nine-year coma[]

Once the two men were stable enough to be moved, Zero had EVA move both Big Boss and the medic to Dhekelia SBA Memorial Hospital in Cyprus in order to be hidden, to receive medical treatment, and to be looked after while they are in their comas. Zero controlled the information so that their enemies, including Skull Face and XOF would not be able to find them while they were unconscious.

Ocelot and Zero talked, with the former being in charge of the security at the hospital. During the conversation, Zero told Ocelot that he aimed to create another Snake, with Ocelot angrily assuming it was a product of the Les Enfants Terribles project. Zero explained he actually planned for the medic to become a mental copy of Big Boss, and act as a body double meant to divert attention away from the real Big Boss. Ocelot, who only cared Big Boss's best interests, reluctantly agreed to the plan.

After Miller recovered from his injuries, he noticed that Big Boss was missing. Contacting Zero, he explained that for Big Boss's safety, Miller had to stay away from Big Boss until the latter woke up from his coma. Zero said that the code word for when Big Boss woke up was "V [had] come to." Unbeknownst to Miller, Zero was actually referring to the medic, who would act as the new Big Boss, while the real one was to disappear out of the public eye.

In 1976, Skull Face sent Zero a lapel pin that belonged to The Boss which Skull Face recovered from Tselinoyarsk, and coated the lapel pin with a form of the vocal cord parasites that infected Zero when the latter accidentally pricked his finger. Skull Face, not content with just killing Zero, coated the lapel pin with a form of parasites that would eventually send Zero into a vegetative state that he would remain in for the remainder of his life.

In 1977, Zero visited both Big Boss and the medic, though he ignored the latter for the most part. He only inquired about the medic when asking the doctor which was the real Big Boss and that the doctors did as instructed. When Zero asked if either of them had woken, the doctor told him that both Snakes' EEGs showed stable activity levels. However, there was no change and that the doctors moved their muscles every four hours, so that they'd be ready to move should they wake up. Zero told the doctor that the two would be in the hospital for the rest of the duration of their comas due to the risk of moving them, and their location was safe. After talking to Big Boss spiritually about the time Zero visited Big Boss in hospital following the Virtuous Mission, Zero left the hospital and went back into hiding for good.


In early 1984, Big Boss awoke from his coma in the Cypriot hospital, while the medic remained unconscious. Over several sessions, Ocelot briefed him on what had happened in the years he had been unconscious, and told him that XOF had learned of his recovery and that the "Man on Fire" had awakened too. Recognizing the man who had saved his life during the attack on Mother Base, Big Boss was made aware of the plan to make the medic into his physical and mental doppelganger, not only as a decoy to protect him from Cipher, but to be his face on the world stage until the time came for his own resurgence. Justifying to himself that the medic had risked his life to protect him previously, and possessed the skills to take on this dangerous role, Big Boss agreed to the plan, despite knowingly placing the lives of innocent hospital patients at risk in the event of an attack.

Big Boss also received information from Ocelot regarding Les Enfants Terribles, learning that the project was abandoned in 1976, and they discussed how they should respond to any potential encounter with the missing clone "Eli", who had given his British handlers the slip somewhere in Southern Africa. Big Boss stated that he felt no real connection to him, but ordered that he should still be treated like a human being and nothing more.

Big Boss was told by Ocelot that the war business Miller and himself started in the 1970s had a favorable influence on Cipher by directing the public's animosity outside their countries, they could unify their frame of mind, that guns for hire could continue the cycle, and the rewards would benefit the economy. One day war would become a business to manipulate the minds of the public.

Concerning Zero's location, Ocelot said there were no leads, and they were not even sure if Zero was still alive, but the protocol he put into place was still progressing. Ocelot compared Zero to Big Brother due to his controlling of information and said that Big Boss was the Big Brother of the battlefield. However, Zero would eventually have nations under his control, he would control people's way of life and extend oppression to the whole world. One day, Big Boss and Ocelot would have to fight this oppression Zero had created.

Zero had been attacked, but Ocelot said that while the details were not completely clear, a biological weapon was used. Zero received medical treatment, but he had not shown any progress in recovery. Since the attack, Zero's speech and actions became unhinged, and Zero's new location was unknown, having used a blackout in New York to disrupt the transportation and information grids and had been covered up. While the AI Cipher used would have the answers, it had been sealed off. While Skull Face successfully attacked Zero, even he didn't know where he was now.

Now that Zero was too ill to continue running Cipher, Ocelot revealed that Donald Anderson had taken over command of Cipher, as well as the AI he oversaw. The idea came to mind in 1974 when the Mammal Pod penetrated NORAD, but due to what happened during the Peace Walker Incident, the new AI had been given restrictions and its purpose was to filter data it collected before passing it on to people, guiding their decision making. They achieved this by recruiting Strangelove into DARPA. That Zero's last request was for Big Boss to be safe. Anderson's new project was called "the Patriots", which was going to be used to drive society to unify the world.

Phantom Pain Incident[]

See also: Hospital Escape and Phantom Pain Incident
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Big Boss as Ishmael in 1984.

The medic awakened on February 26, 1984, and on March 11, Big Boss made his move. Disguising his face in bandages, Big Boss saved the still-recovering medic, whom he dubbed "Ahab," from a female assassin, forcing her to jump from a window after setting her on fire. When Ahab asked who he was, Big Boss told him that he was "talking to himself," identified himself as "Ishmael," and explained that "he's been watching over him for nine years" and that the whole world wanted him dead. After Ishmael injected Ahab with digoxin to help him move, the two proceeded to escape the hospital.

Due to the digoxin taking too long, Ahab and Ishmael opted to use the elevator where they encountered Tretij Rebenok and the Man on Fire, the latter who caused Ahab's arm to dislocate, which Ishmael helped put back into place, telling Ahab that next time he should do it himself, advising him that it was good to fix his injuries while hiding from the enemy. The hospital was then raided by a XOF strike force who came to liquidate Big Boss, and to achieve this they began to indiscriminately and systematically kill everyone they came across in the hospital, regardless of whether they were staff or patients. As they sneaked through the corridors of the besieged hospital, Ishmael saved Ahab from multiple close brushes with death by the hands of the XOF soldiers. While hiding among dead doctors and patients, they were caught by a XOF squad who were distracted and killed by the Man on Fire, who's attack caused Ahab's ankle to dislocate, which Snake fixed himself. Ishmael, meanwhile, realized the Man on Fire's weakness, shot the sprinklers, causing him to disappear. Ishmael and Snake were then able to recover some firearms from the fallen XOF soldiers, and was now able to fight back against the strike force. Making their way to the entrance hall, Ahab and Ishmael separated as the latter ran interference to distract the soldiers and allow Ahab to escape.

After making it outside, Ishmael commandeered an ambulance and used it to run over the Man on Fire to save Snake who he then proceeded to drive to safety. Ishmael drove, evading XOF soldiers, but he was knocked unconscious after taking a shot from a helicopter. Ahab attempted to drive the ambulance, but he crashed into a river bank. Recovering from the accident first, Ishmael was pulled from the vehicle by Ocelot and left the unconscious Ahab in the ambulance.

Ocelot returned to the base area to meet with Big Boss, who discarded his bandages and role of Ishmael, and received clothing, an eyepatch and a motorcycle from his ally. Ocelot then gave Big Boss a U.S. passport and told him to go by the name in said passport and advised him to change his face, so he could return to the States without incident. Ocelot then informed him that the medic would be Big Boss from here on out, and believed himself to be Big Boss, with the real Big Boss summarizing that the medic was his "phantom."


Big Boss with Ocelot before going into hiding.

Ocelot told Big Boss it was necessary as the whole world wanted him dead and assured once again him that the phantom would be all right and that he could handle it. Before going their separate ways, the two smoked a cigar and Ocelot left with D-Horse, though not before Big Boss promised that they would meet again. Big Boss then used the motorcycle to be on his way and began his long term plan to create his new military nation: Outer Heaven.

Big Boss's plans following the hospital escape were orchestrated by Ocelot, who guided the medic in his new role of Venom Snake and stand-in for the real Big Boss. He intentionally used Venom Snake and his mercenary company Diamond Dogs to further the legend of his own name, all the while making preparations for the establishment of the "true" Outer Heaven, outside of the public eye.

Sometime after Venom Snake defeated Skull Face and regained his memories, Big Boss sent a cassette tape to Venom Snake, labelled "From the Man Who Sold the World," which revealed the truth:

"Now do you remember? Who you are? What you were meant to do? I cheated death, thanks to you. And thanks to you I've left my mark. You have too – you've written your own history. You’re your own man. I'm Big Boss, and you are too… No… He’s the two of us. Together. Where we are today? We built it. This story – this “legend” – it’s ours. We can change the world – and with it, the future. I am you, and you are me. Carry that with you, wherever you go. Thank you... my friend. From here on out, you’re Big Boss."
―Big Boss

Big Boss's actions, however, made him an enemy of Diamond Dogs' XO and former comrade Kazuhira Miller. Feeling that he had been betrayed after learning the truth, Miller decided to oppose Big Boss and intended to aid his phantom and "sons" in bringing about his downfall.

Later career[]

Big Boss face

Big Boss in his later years.

Since then, Big Boss appeared in numerous territorial and ethnic conflicts around the world.[1] At some point during the Mozambican Civil War, he was reunited on the battlefield with Frank Jaeger (then a RENAMO soldier), rescuing him from imprisonment and torture. Big Boss later took both Jaeger and his foster sister, Naomi Hunter, to the United States where he helped them establish normal lives. Big Boss and Jaeger eventually returned to Africa to continue fighting, leaving Naomi behind in America.

Big Boss

Big Boss, commander of FOXHOUND, Outer Heaven and Zanzibar Land.

Big Boss achieved near-mythical status due to his extraordinary military career and the exploits of Venom Snake, earning him the "Legendary Soldier" moniker. He was heralded as a true hero and made the front covers of popular magazines in many countries. Afterwards, he served as a combat instructor and worked to reintegrate former child soldiers into society.[3] One of them was a young Sniper Wolf, whom he rescued from a harsh upbringing and raised as a soldier.[34]

At some point during the Gulf War, information regarding Big Boss's genes was used for experimentation on various soldiers serving in the conflict. However, many of these soldiers would later suffer from side effects attributed to Gulf War Syndrome, and their offspring would suffer from physical deformities (nicknamed the "Gulf War Babies").[35]

In the early 1990s, he returned to the U.S. to once again take command of FOXHOUND, the special forces unit he founded almost two decades earlier. While serving as FOXHOUND commander, he secretly built up his mercenary company Outer Heaven into a larger military establishment, with Venom Snake acting in his stead. During this time, he was responsible for the wild and instinctive strategies utilized by FOXHOUND during operations, which often appeared to be planned with little caution and detail.[1]

Circa 1995, David, a former Green Beret who had fought in the Gulf War, joined FOXHOUND. Knowing that David was one of his three cloned sons, Big Boss designated him the codename Solid Snake. Big Boss taught Snake the techniques of CQC and the importance of having the will to survive on the battlefield.[36] At some point, he told Snake that he was his father.[37]

Outer Heaven Uprising[]

Main article: Outer Heaven Uprising

In 1995, the U.S. learned of Metal Gear's development in Outer Heaven. Big Boss commissioned FOXHOUND to infiltrate the fortified nation and destroy the weapon before anyone else so he could buy Venom Snake time to finish the TX-55 Metal Gear.[9]

Big Boss first sent in Gray Fox.[9] When Fox was captured, Big Boss briefed Solid Snake, FOXHOUND's least experienced member about the situation. He then sent him in a follow-up mission codenamed Operation Intrude N313 to rescue Fox and destroy Metal Gear, while also informing Venom Snake of the operation.[38]

Later, Solid Snake showed skills beyond Venom Snake's expectations, leading Big Boss to start feeding Solid Snake with false information and eventually telling him to abort the mission to prevent Solid Snake's success.[39][40][41] Despite Big Boss now actively attempting to sabotage the mission, Snake disobeyed his orders and succeeded in infiltrating Outer Heaven and destroying TX-55 Metal Gear.

Afterwards, Venom Snake confronted Solid Snake personally, calling himself Big Boss.[42] After engaging the base's self-destruct countdown, Solid Snake and Big Boss's phantom fought one on one, and the latter was ultimately killed. With his "phantom" and best man dead, Outer Heaven destroyed, the real Big Boss left FOXHOUND for good and used Venom Snake's death to fake his own before going into hiding.

Following NATO's subsequent bombing of the area, Big Boss rescued many of the survivors, including refugees, orphans, and Resistance members.[43] However, he only did this because he intended to use them on the battlefield.[44] He later fled with the survivors to Central Asia.[1]

Zanzibar Land Disturbance[]

Main article: Zanzibar Land Disturbance
Big Boss MGS4 Artwork

Big Boss and his mercenary forces.

In 1997, Big Boss and his followers participated in the Mercenary War, giving a fledgling nation on the border of the former USSR, Pakistan, China, and Afghanistan its independence. Zanzibar Province, a former autonomous zone of the USSR, thus became Zanzibar Land with Big Boss as its president. Recruiting war orphans from across the Third World and raising them as soldiers, Big Boss hoped to create a nation by and for soldiers where soldiers were honored, not treated as political tools. Some of the children in Zanzibar Land would come to view Big Boss as a father figure.[45] Big Boss recruited Gray Fox to his cause and, to ensure Zanzibar Land's success, he once again commissioned the creation of a Metal Gear: Metal Gear D. This time, Dr. Madnar developed the new model of his own free will, after being branded a madman in the U.S. Dr. Madnar was also rumored to have provided Big Boss with cybernetic body parts to compensate for the injuries he received in Outer Heaven, under orders from an Eastern Bloc despot, who couldn't resist getting his hands on the legendary soldier.[46]

In December 1999, Big Boss was forced to contend with ex-FOXHOUND agent Solid Snake, who had been sent to infiltrate Zanzibar Land's stronghold. Elite mercenaries were dispatched to eliminate the intruder, but each were thwarted by Snake. In recognition of his professionalism, a dying Black Ninja imparted Snake with knowledge on Dr. Kio Marv's location, claiming that Zanzibar Land's leader would have wanted him to.[43] After CIA agent Holly White was captured by Zanzibar Land forces and imprisoned, Big Boss, anticipating the likelihood of Snake rescuing her, had one of the children posted near her cell to report whether he was nearby, as Holly denied Snake's presence.[47]

Despite Big Boss's efforts, Metal Gear D was destroyed and his most trusted lieutenant Gray Fox was defeated in hand-to-hand combat by Snake. Big Boss then confronted Snake in the underground base, appealing to the warrior within Snake that craved the world of perpetual warfare that he was trying to create.[48] Having spent his entire life on the battlefield, Big Boss could not conceive of a world without war, and stated that the best soldiers were otherwise dead weight and useless when removed from the battlefield. After Snake proclaimed his defiance, Big Boss imparted the final words of his own mentor, before challenging his former subordinate to one final battle.

"It doesn't matter who wins here. Our fight will continue. The loser will be liberated from the battlefield, and the winner will remain. And the survivor will live out the rest of his days as a soldier."
―Big Boss to Solid Snake, in Zanzibar Land

Big Boss attempted to gun down Snake, but ultimately fell to Snake's makeshift flamethrower, having underestimated his initially unarmed opponent. Big Boss yelled Snake's name as he was engulfed in flames, unwilling to concede the battle, but eventually collapsed from severe burns and was left for dead by Snake.[49]

After "death"[]

Sometime after his defeat in Zanzibar Land, Big Boss's body was recovered by the Patriots. Despite suffering major injuries, he was still alive. The Patriots then had him injected with nanomachines in order to artificially induce a coma, preserving him as an icon for the organization. Big Boss's genome was then used to identify the so-called "soldier genes," which were implemented in the Next-Generation Special Forces via gene therapy.[35] Big Boss's body was later believed to be in cold storage to preserve his remains.

Big Boss (1999 - 2014)

Big Boss's body is preserved by the Patriots.

In February 2005, Big Boss's body was one of the demands issued by a rogue FOXHOUND Unit, which had launched a revolt on Shadow Moses Island under the command of Liquid Snake. Liquid planned to use Big Boss's DNA to cure genetic mutations in the Genome Soldiers, and to recreate Big Boss's dream of Outer Heaven, utilizing the threat of a nuclear strike with the stolen Metal Gear REX. In doing this, Liquid hoped to surpass the father for whom he had developed an intense hatred. Big Boss's supposed death had also led a vengeful Naomi Hunter to make Solid Snake a target of the FOXDIE virus, though only Liquid's genome proved recognizable to the bio-weapon, which led to his death.

Prior to 2014, Big Boss's DNA and biometric data was used for the Patriots' ID recognition system, the use of which allowed access to their AI network. The Patriots also declassified documents relating to Big Boss's exploits during the 1960s, which contributed to a resurgence in his popularity, with soldiers beginning to adopt CQC techniques.

Data relating to the location of Big Boss's comatose body was stored in the Patriots' AI, GW. This data fell into the hands of Raiden supplying the information to the Paradise Lost Army led by EVA, now known as Big Mama. Using the body parts of Liquid and Solidus Snake, EVA had Big Boss's body rebuilt, eventually restoring him to his former appearance, though he remained in a comatose state due to the Patriots' nanomachines within him.

Guns of the Patriots Incident[]

See also: Liquid Sun, Solid Sun, Third Sun, Twin Suns, Old Sun, and Naked Sin/Naked Son

By 2014, a tombstone to commemorate Big Boss had been erected in Arlington National Cemetery. Placed next to The Boss's grave, it read: "A Hero Forever Loyal to the Flames of War, Rests in Outer Heaven. 193X - 1999."

Due to his identical genome to Big Boss, the remains of Solidus Snake were used as a decoy in order to fool both the Patriots and Liquid Ocelot.[50] Prior to GW's destruction, with which Liquid Ocelot had infiltrated the Patriots' AI network, access to the core AI JD was opened, revealing the location of Zero. After the FOXALIVE virus was uploaded into GW, the Patriots' system of control was destroyed thus allowing Big Boss to awaken from his coma. Now fully revived, he proceeded to track down Zero.

Big Boss Snake

Big Boss's final confrontation with Solid Snake.

Big Boss found that his former friend was now in a vegetative state, dependent on life support and confined to a wheelchair. He then took Zero to Arlington National Cemetery, the location of The Boss's grave. There he witnessed Solid Snake attempt suicide and commended him when he refrained. Big Boss revealed his presence to the startled Snake, disarming him with CQC after the latter drew his weapon in surprise. Embracing him in a hug, Big Boss told his "son" (or rather "brother"), that he felt no hatred between them, and proceeded to explain his resurrection and the truth behind Liquid Ocelot.

Elaborating on the history of the Patriots, Big Boss described the struggle between Zero and himself to Snake. Big Boss stated that, although there was bad blood between him and Zero, all he felt now was "a deep sense of longing, and pity." He pondered on whether Zero despised or feared him. Big Boss proceeded to switch off Zero's air supply machine, killing him, and finally ending their conflict.

Soon after, Big Boss began to feel the effects of the new FOXDIE virus, which he had knowingly contracted from Snake. While in pain, he requested that Snake take him over to The Boss's grave, and assured him that the old FOXDIE mutation wouldn't cause an epidemic as the new strain would supplant it. When he arrived at The Boss's grave, he reflected back on the day he killed The Boss, sorrowfully admitting that he was "already dead" ever since.[51] He then reflected on The Boss's will, finally understanding it after all those years. He stood and saluted, echoing his salute 50 years beforehand.

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Big Boss seconds before succumbing to the effects of FOXDIE.

"This is good... Isn't it?"
―Big Boss's last words.

Sharing one final smoke, Big Boss finally made peace with his last living son, and, as a last request, pleaded with Snake to spend his final days in peace, not to waste them fighting. Moments later, Big Boss passed away at the grave of the woman whose life and death had made him into the person he was.

Codenames and aliases[]

Big Boss's former codename of "Naked Snake" was in reference to the on-site procurement policy of FOX, and to the stealthy nature associated with snakes. It was also partially in honor of the Cobra Unit, which was founded and led by his mentor, The Boss. During the San Hieronymo Incident,[52] as well as the Peace Walker Incident,[53] several of Big Boss's comrades often mistook or joked about the meaning behind the "Naked" part of his codename; as if it were that Snake had not worn any clothes during the Virtuous Mission. Although not a formal codename or alias, he was once referred to as "Son of The Boss" by Colonel Volgin just before their fight in the Groznyj Grad hangar, in reference to the fact that he was The Boss's last disciple.[54] Similarly, while it is not a true alias, he did briefly refer to himself as "Serpiente" (the Spanish word for "Snake") when formally introducing himself to Amanda, shortly before the latter lost consciousness.[55]

The title of "Big Boss" was awarded to Snake following Operation Snake Eater, being regarded as "above even The Boss" after his defeat of the former legendary soldier. However, Snake disliked the title—since he felt that he hadn't actually surpassed The Boss—and did not identify himself as such until 1974. Prior to this, several of his subordinates and comrades had nevertheless called him "Boss," or other variations such as "Vic Boss" ("Boss of Victory").[6] Big Boss shared his main title with Venom Snake after the latter woke up from his coma.

In 1984, Big Boss was also known by the alias Ishmael, which was the name of the protagonist and narrator of Moby-Dick.

Sniper Wolf referred to Big Boss as Saladin, [56] in reference to the prominent figure in Kurdish culture, who led the Muslim opposition against the Christian Crusaders in the Levant.

Personality and traits[]

"To do the right thing, you sometimes have to leave the things you care about behind."
―Big Boss[src]

Big Boss had an innate desire for conflict, mostly because that was the only thing he truly knew, having been exposed to combat at a fairly young age.[57] Big Boss often viewed subjects from a military perspective such as using environmental landmarks to set traps,[58] and identifying with aspects of other countries, such as France, by their armed forces and national anthem.[59][60] However, he was tolerant to people who believed in peace; even if his Outer Heaven vision involved giving the soldier a place where he would always be needed in the world, he had nothing against people who aspired for peace, as evidenced by his interaction with Paz's alleged beliefs towards peace.

He was also sometimes compassionate and forgiving towards his friends and enemies, forgiving Kazuhira Miller after he admitted that he was in on Cipher's plot and forgiving Ocelot for blinding his right eye. However, he was willing to kill Paz to prevent her from talking after she was captured by Cipher.

In addition, Big Boss disagreed with mercy killings, feeling that there was always another reason to live, as evidenced by his response to Amanda's request that he put Chico out of his misery, if the latter should reveal information under torture. Though Big Boss did kill his former friend Zero, it was mainly to finish off the Patriots.

During his youth, he was also willing to sacrifice himself for his country if need be, although his patriotism towards America came into serious question after he was forced to kill The Boss in a conspiracy that showcased to him how even the best of soldiers are expendable to the government. While Big Boss did still have some respect for his country, he wasn't going to live his life the way The Boss had, as a tool for corrupt political aims, and anything he did would be done out of loyalty to himself rather than a country.


Naked Snake.

The cornea and lens of Big Boss's right eye was damaged, and the eyeball itself ruptured, due to the muzzle burn from Major Ocelot's revolver in Operation Snake Eater. From then on he adopted the use of an eyepatch. Coincidentally, two of his clones would later utilize similar attire, but on their left eyes instead: Solidus Snake, to cover his own damaged eye, and Solid Snake, to aid the vision of his still functioning eye via the Solid Eye device.

Perhaps the biggest effect had on Big Boss's personality was when he was forced to kill The Boss, who was akin to a mother figure to him, during Operation Snake Eater, an action that haunted him for the rest of his life. He initially refused to identify himself as Big Boss because he felt he was still inferior to The Boss, and in his final moments, he told Solid Snake that he was already dead from the moment he killed her. It wasn't until the end of the Peace Walker Incident, ten years after Operation Snake Eater, that he was finally willing to embrace the title of Big Boss. On a similar note, Big Boss also wasn't too fond of the heap of praise for his soldiering skills initially, as he referred to his reputation as "overblown" when Para-Medic claimed he was wanted for treason due to the one who organized the FOX revolt utilizing similar skills to him.[61]

Big Boss was implied to be disillusioned after killing The Boss, misinterpreting her final message as The Boss wanted absolute freedom for all. His disillusionment was pushed further at the end of the Peace Walker Incident when Strangelove said that The Boss laid down her gun and wanted to live in peace. Big Boss at this moment believed that The Boss betrayed him and everything she stood for as a soldier. On his death in 2014, Big Boss finally realized what her final will was.

In his later years, Big Boss was shown to be a wise-cracker, such as asking whether a uniform Snake procured was a girl's high school uniform, or whether he was moving house after he located a cardboard box.[62][63]

Big Boss was fond of smoking cigars, and would do so even while undertaking a sneaking mission. He also ended up irritated whenever people either erroneously refer to his cigar as a cigarette or act as though they are the same thing, as evidenced by his reaction to Para-Medic and Sigint's statements about his cigar in 1964. Big Boss also drank alcohol, although he had enough restraint to keep himself from doing so during a mission. He also showed fluency in some foreign languages, such as Russian and French, and was shown to know at least a bit of Spanish.

During the time of Operation Snake Eater, Naked Snake was a fan of dog sledding.[64]

He generally did not watch or follow pop culture aspects such as movies, although he was convinced by Para-Medic to see two movies during his missions in Tselinoyarsk: A Fistful of Dollars and Jason and the Argonauts.

Having a large appetite, Big Boss was willing to eat anything he could capture during his missions into Tselinoyarsk, sometimes not even caring if they were poisonous as long as they at least tasted good. This caused Para-Medic to either scold him if the animal in question was not something to eat, or jokingly call him a cannibal if he was eating something like snakes or jackfruit. During the Peace Walker Incident, he decided not to hunt any animals (although he did jump into the water to eat a raw Arowana fish while searching for the AI lab in Central Heredia during the Peace Walker Incident), as he and his men had plenty of food to eat. In 1984, after Ocelot provided information on certain animals, he would tell Venom Snake not to eat them.

Due to a combination of both his training under The Boss and his drills in FOX, Big Boss was resilient to varying levels of torture to prevent him from talking.

Big Boss possessed no qualms in utilizing unorthodox tactics, such as hiding in a cardboard box, or considering the idea of shooting down a hornets' nest on an unsuspecting soldier during the Virtuous Mission.


Big Boss in formal military dress, circa 1964.

During his days as a CIA agent and mercenary, Big Boss indicated that he held several beliefs in myths and the supernatural, in conversations with his comrades:

  • He stated that thinking about vampires gave him nightmares, in a radio conversation with Para-Medic regarding vampire bats. For this reason, he would rather she didn't utter the name "Dracula" when speaking to him (as she was quite the movie buff). His fear of vampires was also noted by a female soldier in the Militaires Sans Frontières.[65]
  • Big Boss revealed to Huey Emmerich that he believed in Santa Claus, going so far as to argue for his existence. Their conversation related to NORAD, and was in reference to an annual event called "NORAD tracks Santa."[66]

Despite his beliefs, there had been instances where he was unfamiliar with some supernatural creatures, a notable example occurring during Operation Snake Eater, regarding the Zombie facepaint, where he expressed unfamiliarity with the concept of zombies.

MGS PW - Snake, Prologue

Big Boss's snake-shaped "scar" in Colombia (1974).

In the early 1970s, Big Boss received a snake-shaped scar across his chest, similar to that of his mentor, The Boss. Although its appearance suggested that it was self-inflicted, the scar was actually a fake, and was used to store a jigsaw on his person in case he needed it in an emergency situation. Nevertheless, the shape and placement of the scar served as a visual testament to Big Boss's passion, and even obsession, with The Boss. In addition, similar to his compatriots, he also revered the Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.

One of Big Boss's flaws was his tendency to underestimate people in regards to accomplishing a task. In one instance, during the Peace Walker Incident, he allowed Chico to sell a photograph of the Chrysalis UAV and pass it off as a UFO photo, believing wouldn't be successful, and another was during Solid Snake's mission in Outer Heaven, where he sent Snake into the fortress state believing that he wouldn't get far, in an attempt to spread misinformation to the West. Both times, this led to potentially disastrous consequences. The first time, Chico managed to sell the Chrysalis photo to a magazine, which, along with other supposed evidence, convinced Prime Minister Gairy to request that the UN set up an agency to investigate UFOs, drawing the ire of the CIA whom considered assassinating him. The second time resulted in Solid Snake gaining information on TX-55 Metal Gear and ultimately destroying it, causing the loss of Outer Heaven, Big Boss's command of FOXHOUND and the death of his best friend and body double, Venom Snake.

Big Boss intended to become an instructor after the events of Operation Snake Eater.[20] In his later years, he eventually served as a combat instructor, working to reintegrate former child soldiers into society.[3] However, he eventually came to believe that soldiers on the battlefield could never be reintegrated into society.

Through years of training and experience, Big Boss developed heightened levels of endurance[67] and reflexes, surviving prolonged periods of pain, torture,[68][69] and narrowly evading numerous near-fatal incidents.[70]


The Boss[]

The relationship that Big Boss had with The Boss was the most impactful relationship he ever had. The Boss was Big Boss's mentor and mother figure. Having spent ten years living together and having developed CQC together, they developed a strong bond that would last for the rest of their lives. Big Boss, known at the time as Naked Snake described to EVA that half of him belongs to The Boss and that their relationship is even deeper than friends or lovers.

When Big Boss thought that The Boss had defected, he was devastated, even more so when he was given the mission to assassinate his mentor, something he found difficult to come to terms with during Operation Snake Eater. After great hesitation, Big Boss completed his mission and killed his beloved mentor, this would create a guilt that Big Boss would suffer for the rest of his life.

When Big Boss discovered that The Boss did not defect and that the U.S. Government had her killed, he lost his patriotism for his country and went on to create his own mercenary company. During the Peace Walker Incident, Big Boss lost some respect for The Boss due to believing that The Boss put down her gun and rejected everything in her life.

Before his death, Big Boss would speak spiritually to The Boss and realize that she was right and understand the meaning behind what she did. Big Boss admitted sorrowfully that ever since the day he killed The Boss he was already dead.


Zero and Big Boss were friends with the former being the latter's commander during his time in FOX. They trusted each other and both of them had a thing in common that they both trusted and had known The Boss really well at some point in their lives.

In order to fulfill The Boss's will, they formed the Patriots, with Big Boss trusting Zero with the Philosophers' Legacy at the time. However, their relationship began to strain due to Zero using Big Boss's fame in order to influence people and organizations. The strain went further when Zero created Big Boss's clones in the Les Enfants Terribles project, at which point Big Boss left the Patriots for good.

Zero still valued Big Boss as a friend and actually helped to save his life and keep him safe after Skull Face put Big Boss in a coma, something Zero could not forgive. In 1977, Zero visited Big Boss one last time to say farewell before leaving the public eye for good.

Just before their deaths, Big Boss looked back over the history of the Patriots and how even though there was much bad blood between them, he no longer felt hatred for Zero, only feeling longing and pity, and wondered if Zero hated or feared him. Big Boss then killed Zero, sending his former friend to peace.


Para-Medic and Big Boss met during the Virtuous Mission, having both served in the FOX unit at the time, and they got on fairly well. She would give him guidance on how to treat serious injuries and ailments, as well as giving him info on the edible wildlife in Tselinoyarsk. Para-Medic said that, while there was a risk of her losing her medical license, she said that she didn't care and was not worried as she believed in Big Boss. She enjoyed sharing movie plot lines and trivia with Big Boss. She and Big Boss would later become two of the founding members of Cipher.


Big Boss and Ocelot first met during the Virtuous Mission as enemies, but over time they would come to enjoy and respect each other, with the former offering advice that Ocelot would give to others twenty years after their first encounter. They became something like friendly rivals who would attempt to outdo each other for sport. Big Boss and Ocelot trusted each other immensely, as Ocelot was one of the few individuals to know about Venom Snake's true identity and role. Ocelot idolized Big Boss and, despite his deceiving nature, his loyalties were always to Big Boss and Big Boss alone. Ocelot later carried on Big Boss's will during the Guns of the Patriots Incident by building Outer Haven.


Big Boss met Sigint during Operation Snake Eater, who was assigned to give him intel on weapons, camouflage, armor, and vehicles. He also explained the story of The Sorrow after Big Boss encountered him on the other side. He and Big Boss would later become one of the founding members of Cipher.


EVA met Big Boss during Operation Snake Eater. Though initially distrusting and rejecting her advances, Big Boss eventually came to trust and care for EVA. At first only trying to seduce Big Boss as part of her mission, EVA also came to love him and felt guilty when she was forced to steal the Philosopher's Legacy from him (which turned out to be a false copy). They worked together throughout the entire operation and spent the night together in Alaska afterwards. Although Big Boss found out that EVA lied about her origins and objectives, he did eventually forgive her. They, along with their fellow Patriot founders, would be the only ones to know about The Boss's true loyalties.

EVA, out of love for Big Boss, served as the surrogate mother to carry his "children". Big Boss, however, didn't share EVA's care for them due to the nature in which they were created, and wanted nothing to do with them. Even in 2014, she continued to respect and care for Big Boss and their last surviving "son", Solid Snake.

Colonel Volgin[]

Volgin was one of Big Boss's loathed enemies due to the former's ruthless and sadistic ways, the latter Big Boss was on the receiving end of. After being tortured by Volgin, Big Boss told Zero that he would pay Volgin back for the torture, seeing him fully as the ruthless and cruel man he was. Even prior to his torture, he expressed horror and disgust when he learned from EVA of not only Volgin's role in the Katyn Forest massacre, but the exceptionally sickening method of him executing the prisoners by beating them to death after removing the blindfolds. During Operation Snake Eater, Volgin hated Big Boss for his killing of the Cobra Unit and the threat he posed to Volgin's plans. By the end of Operation Snake Eater, Volgin hated Big Boss so much that all he cared about was killing him, destroying almost all of Groznyj Grad and killing a number of his own men in his wild rampage with the Shagohod.

After becoming the "Man on Fire", Volgin's only goal in his undead life was to get revenge on Big Boss for destroying his plans during Operation Snake Eater, his hatred and lust for revenge against Big Boss was so great that it allowed him to survive his devastating injuries. Discovery of not only Volgin's survival, but also his impending arrival at the hospital alongside XOF, was also the reason why Big Boss was forced to accelerate the plan regarding Venom Snake acting as a decoy. The two encountered each other at the Dhekelia Memorial Hospital - however, Volgin went after the wrong Snake, instead hunting down Big Boss's body double Venom Snake. Later, at the Yakho Oboo Supply Outpost, Volgin attacked Venom, but upon realizing he wasn't the same man as Naked Snake who he carried so much resentment for, let his anger fade and finally returned to rest.

CIA Director[]

Snake and the CIA Director met during the former's award ceremony after Operation Snake Eater. The CIA Director offered to shake Snake's hand, but after discovering the true nature of Operation Snake Eater with The Boss's defection being nothing more than an undercover mission and that the CIA fabricated it to the public as true, Snake refused to shake the Director's hand, telling the DOD Official that the reason he refused is because his loyalties did not belong to the Director or the CIA.

DOD Official[]

Though Snake and the DOD Official didn't meet at the time, the DOD Official was there when Snake was awarded the title "Big Boss" by Lyndon B. Johnson and reconsigned the skills that Snake possessed and that he proved that they could use a unit like FOX in the army.

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]

Six years later, the DOD Official was implied to have been responsible for supplying Big Boss with FOXHOUND, thus ultimately getting his wish for a FOX-like unit in the Army.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Ten years after Operation Snake Eater, they would interact during the Peace Walker Incident in which Big Boss successfully convinced the DOD Official that the nukes were fakes, to which Big Boss was grateful for.

Warning: The following events occur in the pseudo-historical Side Ops in Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes; its level of canonicity is ambiguous.

The DOD Official later repaid Big Boss for this earlier action by hiring him and MSF to discreetly retrieve intel located by an undercover JCS agent at the United States Naval Prison Facility in Cuba, after it was suspected to have been penetrated by Cipher.

Side Ops information ends here.
Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]


Snake had heard of Cunningham before meeting him during the San Hieronymo Incident. Cunningham tortured Snake repeatedly during the incident, wanting to know the location of The Philosopher's Legacy, to which Snake knew nothing of. Snake's disgust for Cunningham grew when he tried to kill his men to make him talk. Cunningham respected Snake and had hoped that they would both receive the highest honors a soldier can get, and also implied he genuinely hoped that Snake would be sympathetic enough in Cunningham's hatred of the CIA to aid in the DOD's smear campaign against the CIA, though in his last moments he tried to take Snake with him in death, with Snake trying to talk him out of using the Davy Crockett in that manner. Snake killed Cunningham during the same incident.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Roy Campbell[]

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]

Both Snake and Campbell were prisoners of the FOX Unit during the San Hieronymo Incident. They both worked together to defeat Gene. Snake saved Campbell's life when he had malaria and gave him advice about how it was okay to be scared, though Campbell misinterpreted this.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Campbell became Big Boss's vice commander in FOXHOUND and would come to command this unit on his own after the Outer Heaven Uprising. Campbell would help Solid Snake to defeat Big Boss during the Zanzibar Land Disturbance, calling the latter a "madman."

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." Its canonicity within the continuity is disputed, therefore reader discretion is advised.[?]


Jonathan was the first recruit into FOXHOUND and Snake complimented Jonathan's quick recovery and his quick thinking. Jonathan called Snake a hero when he realized that Snake was Big Boss and defeated Volgin during Operation Snake Eater. Jonathan joined FOXHOUND and asked for his first mission. Jonathan was loyal to Big Boss as he lead the team that rescued him and saved Big Boss's life but at the cost of his own. Snake held Jonathan while he died and screamed in anguish.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Venom Snake[]

Big Boss regarded Venom Snake as MSF's best man. He trusted Venom Snake more than almost anyone else in MSF, as he was one of the few that knew that Paz had survived the Peace Walker Incident and vice versa, shown when as a medic Venom Snake leaped in front of Big Boss to shield him from an explosion during XOF's attack on Mother Base.

The medic would later be converted into a body double for Big Boss to protect the latter from his enemies. Big Boss would be eternally grateful to Venom Snake, respecting him as a comrade and a friend. He saw that they were both Big Boss together, creating the idea of the legendary soldier as a collective rather than as one single person. That the legend of Big Boss belonged to both of them. Venom Snake continued to possess his unwavering loyalty to Big Boss, continuing his role as Big Boss even after being told the truth. He would later go to battle against Solid Snake under orders from Big Boss and lose his life in loyalty to his leader.

The Twin Snakes[]

"I never thought of you as a son, but I always respected you as a soldier... and as a man."
―Big Boss[src]

Big Boss refused to acknowledge that Liquid and Solid Snake were his sons, calling them more disgusting than cells grown in a lab. His attitude stemmed from his being cloned by the Patriots without his consent, in order to further their influence and power. Despite this, Big Boss felt they should be treated like human beings, but nothing more.

Big Boss respected Solid Snake as a soldier, enough to personally train him in CQC as his commanding officer, and later attempted to convince him of his ideological views on warfare. Before his death, he made peace with Snake, lauding him for his choice in diverging from the path he himself had taken, recognizing he had been mistaken.

Unconfirmed history[]

The following information has been detailed in official Konami-licensed media, written by various external authors. Its status in the Metal Gear canon is unconfirmed.[?]

Naked Snake's reluctance towards shaking President Lyndon B. Johnson's hand, following Operation Snake Eater, was partially due to his view that Johnson was not a true president, having only entered office because of President Kennedy's assassination.

Shortly after Solid Snake's initiation into FOXHOUND, Big Boss gave a speech while shaking the hands of each recruit, telling them that the battles they would face were in a war unlike any before, and that none would tell of their successes, failures, or even deaths. However, the battles the soldiers faced would be ones that they were chosen for, regardless of who gave the order, and that they would know no life but combat. Big Boss also acknowledged that they were in a way to be pitied, but informed the soldiers that they were not tools of the government, or anyone else, and that they would fight for themselves and to protect the things they held dear. Snake never realized the connection between this speech and Frank Jaeger's last words on Shadow Moses until meeting with Big Boss in Arlington almost twenty years later.[71]

Behind the scenes[]

Big Boss (ビッグ・ボス Biggu Bosu?) is the central character of the Metal Gear series. He is first introduced in the original Metal Gear as the commanding officer of the protagonist, Solid Snake, only to be revealed as the leader of the enemy forces, and thus the main antagonist of the game. He would resume the latter role in Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, in which he was the final boss. Big Boss would then play a key role in the backstory of the series where Metal Gear Solid and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty revealed that he's the genetic father of Solid Snake, Liquid Snake, and Solidus Snake.

In addition to his role in the sequels, Big Boss also appears as the main protagonist in a series of prequels set before the events of the original Metal Gear, beginning with Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, followed by Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker and Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes and as a supporting character in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots and Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, where he is depicted as an American covert operative codenamed Naked Snake (ネイキッド・スネーク Neikiddo Sunēku??), in the first two, being simply known as Snake in Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes and Ishmael in The Phantom Pain, sharing the namesake with his sons, Solid Snake, Liquid Snake and Solidus Snake, and his phantom and body double, Venom Snake.

Big Boss is also the first character in the series to appear as the protagonist and the main antagonist in different games.

As his younger self, the character's Japanese voice is provided by Akio Ōtsuka. His English voice is provided by David Hayter and Kiefer Sutherland. In his appearance in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Big Boss was voiced by Chikao Ōtsuka (Akio Ōtsuka's father) in the Japanese version and Richard Doyle in the English version.

Big Boss's name in Chinese is Tai Pan, which is also the name of a family of the most dangerous snakes in the world. In Cantonese Chinese, Tai-Pan could also mean a foreign "Big Boss" or "Big Shot" in business term.

Metal Gear[]

Big Boss (MG)

Official artwork of Big Boss in the Metal Gear user's manual.

While the Japanese MSX2 manual for Metal Gear displays Big Boss's eyepatch on his left eye, the character sprite displays it on the right eye, and it is the latter appearance that carried over to later games. The eyepatch itself may have been influenced by the appearance of Snake Plissken in the film Escape from New York, much like Solid Snake was. The same manual also describes Big Boss as having been a previous member of the SAS and GSG 9. However, this information was disregarded in all future biographies, and is assumed to no longer be canonical. In artwork featuring the game's boss characters, the unidentified Outer Heaven leader is depicted in silhouette with a walking cane. It is later revealed in Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain that the "Big Boss" fought by Solid Snake in Outer Heaven was actually a body double, making the identity of the silhouetted character ambiguous.

The packaging and instruction manual for the NES version of Metal Gear[72] and Snake's Revenge identify Solid Snake's commanding officer as Commander South, and the enemy leader as Colonel Vermon CaTaffy. The names are references to Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Libyan dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi, respectively. Despite this, the packaging and manual for Metal Gear features a screenshot that identifies Big Boss's role as Snake's CO via the Transceiver Mode. A similar distinction is made canonically in The Phantom Pain, with Big Boss's Phantom serving as the "Outer Heaven Commander" and Big Boss serving as Solid Snake's CO.

Snake's Revenge[]

Main article: Big Boss (Operation 747)

Big Boss returns as the penultimate boss in the non-canonical NES sequel to Metal Gear, Snake's Revenge. He guards the final fortress where Metal Gear 2 is located. Big Boss reveals to Solid Snake that he survived his injuries in Outer Heaven through surgeries that turned him into a cyborg. At first, he fights with a machine gun, but after being shot several times, he then transforms into a giant RoboCop-like cyborg, and proceeds to chase Snake around while firing napalm shells at him. However, Snake lures him out of the command room and places mines on his feet, which ultimately kills him. Despite his death in this game, Metal Gear 2 is still activated.

The packaging and instruction manual for Snake's Revenge identify the enemy leader as Higharolla Kockamamie, a reference to Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake[]

Like Snake's Revenge, Big Boss returns as the main villain in the canonical sequel Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake. His appearance in the original MSX2 version was modeled after Scottish actor Sean Connery. Like other characters, this image was updated for later releases of the game to reflect his look in official artwork of Metal Gear Solid, which was also carried over to his appearance in Metal Gear Solid 4. His character sprite in Metal Gear 2 depicts him wearing a red beret, although his portrait, both in the original and the re-released versions, does not reflect this.

In the original manual, Big Boss is stated to have lost his eye in the late 1980s, after which he retired from the front line to focus on military education and training. It is also stated that he was nominated as FOXHOUND's international planning commander in the '90s, but his lust for power led him to take control of Outer Heaven. Later games in the series would retcon this information, with Big Boss losing his eye and assuming command of FOXHOUND under different circumstances.

One of the mercenary units that Big Boss was said to have fought with, after serving in Vietnam, was the Wild Geese, a reference to the novel and 1978 war film of the same name, about a mercenary group participating in African conflicts. The novel itself was named after a 17th-century Irish mercenary army.

During the fight with Big Boss in Metal Gear 2, George Kasler will mention a rumor that Big Boss lost his right eye in Outer Heaven, along with his hands, feet and right ear, before he was reconstructed as a cyborg under the Snatcher Project (referring to an earlier work by Hideo Kojima). Despite altered depictions of Big Boss's eye injury in later games, Kasler's account is included in the Metal Gear Solid 4 Database and the Project Itoh novelization of Metal Gear Solid 4. In the same call, Kasler will comment that Big Boss's fame as a soldier was comparable to that of American-born Cuban revolutionary William Morgan, although this reference was cut from the Virtual Console re-release, due to it being too obscure.[73] It is revealed in Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain that the rumor was false.

Big Boss was never meant to be fought against using the regular weapons found through out the game. However by the use of cheat codes the player can actually face him while still using the regular weapons of the game. This will reveal that Big Boss doesn't actually have any collision at all, as bullets and explosives will simply go through him without making any physical contact with him. However Big Boss is vulnerable to direct explosions, ironically retaining his weakness to missiles from the original game. This is odd considering that unlike Gray Fox there isn't any actual explosives around the area, this likely means that either the make-shift flame thrower Snake actually uses against him has the same properties as an explosion, or the fight was supposed to include a wider variety of weaponry.

Metal Gear Solid[]


Big Boss character artwork for Metal Gear Solid.

It is first revealed that Big Boss is the father of Solid Snake in Metal Gear Solid. Snake tells Naomi Hunter that Big Boss had told him of this prior to his "demise" in Zanzibar Land. It is commonly assumed that Big Boss relayed this information to him immediately prior to their final battle in Metal Gear 2, though the only detail that's made clear is that Snake knowingly "killed" his own father at that time, with only himself and Roy Campbell being aware of this fact.[37] The same game further elaborates that his status as Snake's father was the result of a cloning project called Les Enfants Terribles, with it also being tied directly to Snake's twin "brother" Liquid Snake, the main antagonist of the game. Both the original Metal Gear Solid and to a lesser degree its remake The Twin Snakes implied that Big Boss was a knowing participant in Les Enfants Terribles, although later games (notably Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots) retconned this to reveal it was done against his wishes. On a similar note, his exact role in Liquid being designated the inferior clone and Liquid's knowledge of such that acted as his motivation varied between versions. In the original game, Liquid claimed Big Boss had told him such directly and had done so multiple times.[74] In the game's GameCube remake, The Twin Snakes, Liquid instead indicated he merely assumed Big Boss had deliberately designated him to be the inferior clone.[75]

In the English version of Metal Gear Solid, Liquid Snake states that Big Boss was in a coma during the time of Les Enfants Terribles.[76] However, the original Japanese script states that he had simply been sterilized due to injuries from combat.[77] The latter account was briefly referenced in Nastasha Romanenko's book In the Darkness of Shadow Moses: The Unofficial Truth.[78] Despite the dialogue changes made for the remake Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes, in order to be a more direct translation of the Japanese script, the specific line concerning the coma was retained.

Big Boss's relationship to FOXHOUND is elaborated on in the game's manual, where it is revealed that he is actually the founder of the organization, having been impressed with the power and efficiency of high-tech weaponry used during the Gulf War. Metal Gear Solid 3 further retcons this by revealing he had founded FOXHOUND two decades earlier than originally stated.

Strategy guide biography[]

The Metal Gear Solid: Official Mission Handbook, published in 1998 by Millennium Books, contains a biography of Big Boss's early years. This information was disregarded in later games, in which Big Boss was of a younger age, and had been a member of the CIA in the early 1960s. Similarly, his clones' Japanese heritage had actually originated with an egg donor's mitochondrial DNA.

According to the Handbook, Big Boss was a third generation Japanese-American who was born in Hawaii. The entire American side of his family had perished during the Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor. While his Japanese relatives were locked up in internment camps, he joined the 442nd Infantry Regiment in his teens. Big Boss gained his first combat experience fighting in France, where his unit had contributed to freeing towns from Nazi control in 1944. After returning to America after the war, he lost patriotism for his country, due to prejudice towards his Japanese heritage. Big Boss later participated as a mercenary for France in the Congo Crisis, from 1961 to 1968, later serving in wars in Asia, Africa, and the Middle/Far East. He also specifically chose missions that related to people's liberation, even declining various missions from an abundance of governments, military organizations, and terrorist groups that were well-paid. It was also implied that his sterility was diagnosed due to various battlefield injuries, and that he covertly agreed with the U.S. Government to participate in the Les Enfants Terribles. Big Boss also allegedly said, upon being defeated by Solid Snake, that "Even after my demise, I [Big Boss] shall live on, in the fears and tormented minds of my hated enemies."[79]

Ghost Babel[]

In Metal Gear: Ghost Babel, an alternative sequel to the original Metal Gear, Big Boss did fight with Solid Snake in Outer Heaven but was killed. It is stated that Big Boss was originally under orders by the U.S. Government to form Outer Heaven as part of Project Babel, but he broke ties with the project, resulting in Operation Intrude N313. In addition, Solid Snake reveals to Chris Jenner that Big Boss is his father, during an optional Codec conversation, although it is not specified whether their relationship is through natural means or via Les Enfants Terribles.[80] He also alluded to killing his father in a Codec conversation with Weasel, regarding rumors of the latter murdering his brother in a conflict.[81] No. 4 of the Special Stages section of Ghost Babel, speculated that the reason Big Boss went renegade was so he'd have an opportunity to fight his son to the death.[82] No. 4 also mentioned that using Metal Gear in the project was Big Boss's idea, and indicated that he intended for the TX-55 to include a rail gun to fire stealth missiles.[83] One of the main antagonists of the game, "General" Augustine Eguabon, was also a former disciple of Big Boss during the Outer Heaven Uprising.[84]

Metal Gear Solid 2[]

Prior to the release of Metal Gear Solid 3, Big Boss was originally to have learned the art of warfare from Dead Cell strategic master Old Boy, in Hideo Kojima's "Grand Game Plan" for Metal Gear Solid 2. In the game itself, Big Boss appears opposite both Solid Snake and Liquid Snake in a cutscene, during Solidus Snake's explanation to Raiden of the similarities of their connection to the one shared by the Twin Snakes and Big Boss.

In the scene where Pliskin was revealed to be the real Solid Snake, the latter while firing his assault rifle at Solidus yelled "Stop impersonating him!". Although the game does not directly indicate who Snake was referring to, the script included in the Document of Metal Gear Solid 2 confirms that Snake was referring to Big Boss, a further allusion to Solidus's obsession and reverence with emulating his template in stark contrast to the other Les Enfants Terribles clones.

Metal Gear Solid 3[]

According to a voice casting sheet for Metal Gear Solid 3, Naked Snake's "physical constitution" was intended to be similar to actor Arnold Schwarzenegger in terms of bulk. It also stated that Snake was to be 6'5, though cutscenes show Colonel Volgin (who is more than 6'7) towering over Snake.[85] During the game's development, Kojima intended that Naked Snake be given a more human feel (having feelings and pain) to directly contrast him to his clone, Solid Snake. Prior to the game's release, however, Kojima when asked about Naked Snake's identity kept the matter vague in interviews, owing to the trailers never directly indicating who Naked Snake was.[86]


Metal Gear Solid 3 artwork depicting Naked Snake.

Naked Snake in the Olive Drab uniform is very similar looking to the appearance of Iroquois Pliskin, the Navy SEAL who Solid Snake disguised himself as during the Plant Chapter in Metal Gear Solid 2. In early testing versions of Metal Gear Solid 3, Pliskin's model served as a placeholder for Naked Snake, as can be seen here.

Before commencing the HALO jump into Tselinoyarsk, Naked Snake stamps out a cigar that is almost blown out of the aircraft he is on board. According to Hideo Kojima's commentary on Metal Gear Solid 3, this was done as a response to Solid Snake throwing away a cigarette into the Hudson Bay during the Tanker chapter in Metal Gear Solid 2, of which a lot of angry reactions were made to it. The director's commentary, as well as Para-Medic's conversation about Snake's mask, reveal that portions of his mask were based on the film The Fly, and was done both to give it a feel of the time period, the 1960s, as well as a homage to Raiden. His curling up and spinning after jumping off the plane before going into position was also intended to be an homage to Kamen Rider. Regarding Snake's use of the high speed drone, during commencement of Operation Snake Eater, Kojima commented on his lack of pressure suit in comparison to the pursuing MiG pilots, and jokingly stated that this was the moment when he became superhuman.

In the Trial Version demo for Snake Eater, in the call relating to Indian Gavials, Naked Snake, when Para-Medic referenced the movie Godzilla: King of the Monsters, took particular note of her description of Godzilla as being "...radioactive and pissed off...", foreshadowing how he himself was irradiated during the Bravo Shot test at Bikini Atoll and his ultimate descent into villainy as Big Boss in the MSX2 games. This was omitted in the final release.[87]

Shortly after Naked Snake told Para-Medic that his real name was John Doe, she claimed that he was "a real Captain Nemo." This is a reference of Akio Ōtsuka, Naked Snake's Japanese voice actor, who previously provided the voice of Captain Nemo in Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water.

During the game, Snake mentions that he can't smell, in a radio conversation with The Boss; it is actually the player that cannot use their sense of smell to help play the game.

A conversation with Zero, regarding Big Boss's brothers (or lack thereof), is a subtle reference to the three future clones: Solid, Liquid, and Solidus. The conversation originated when Zero noted the coincidence that Major Raikov technically had the same name as Naked Snake ("Ivan" is the Russian version of "John" or "Jack"), and that common Russian folklore had the youngest in the family, usually named "Ivan," treated badly by the family, and yet he often ended up better off than his elder brothers.

Naked Snake mentioning that he couldn't help but compare himself to James Bond is an inside joke. In the original MSX2 version of Metal Gear 2, Big Boss's appearance was modeled after Sean Connery, as noted above. Connery famously portrayed Bond from 1962–71 and again in 1983 and 2005 (the latter as the voice of Bond in the video game James Bond 007: From Russia with Love).

Naked Snake's motion actor throughout the game was Mizuho Yoshida, the sole exception being during the CQC battle at Dremuchij North at the beginning of Operation Snake Eater, in which Motosada Mori did the motion capture acting after deciding that the way Mori did it was more painful compared to how Yoshida did it, and thus more genuine. Similarly, Mori also did the motion capture of The Boss landing the deciding blow on Naked Snake in the same scene.[88]

Naked Snake's immense knowledge of handguns, more specifically his explanation and reaction to the M1911A1 custom that he received from EVA, was the result of one of the production staff suggesting that they characterize Snake as being similar to a gun maniac at a Gun Shop.[88] This suggestion also resulted in the original concept of Snake getting a spy-film gun being cut.

When EVA attempts to kiss Naked Snake, during their rendezvous at the Krasnogorje mountaintop, he freezes up. The reason for this was because Snake's motion capture actor, Mizuho Yoshida, got nervous and froze up due to his ending up being in an emotional scene, whereas the regular actresses were told to do action scenes.[89]

If the player inputs the Konami Code on the game cleared screen, Naked Snake will be heard saying "One More to Go..."

While facing The Sorrow, Naked Snake encounters the souls of all the soldiers that the player has killed during the game (if any), including the Cobra Unit members. Given The Sorrow's dialogue that Snake would face "all those whose lives he had ended," it is unclear whether this is intended to imply that he had never killed anyone prior to the Virtuous Mission, though the kill count may simply be a gameplay element.

During The Boss's speech about what being a soldier entails, Naked Snake affirms that he will "obey the will of the president, no matter who is in charge." In real life, the American military and its various soldiers swear to defend the Constitution of the United States, and not to the President himself.


Naked Snake appears in several of the Secret Theater videos, which were included in Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence. In Metal Gear Raiden: Snake Eraser, Raiden travels back in time to assassinate Naked Snake, à la the Terminator, so that he can usurp Solid Snake's role as main character in the next game. However, Raiden is unable to bring himself to kill Naked Snake when he had him at his mercy during the Shagohod chase. This would later come back to haunt him when he decided to target Solid Snake directly during the Zanzibar Land Disturbance, which ends in Big Boss shooting Raiden. Big Boss proclaims that Snake belongs to him, while Raiden angrily states he should have killed Big Boss when he had the chance. Similarly, in Metal Gear S..., Sigint frequently managed to beat Naked Snake to the punch in regards to key events, ending with Snake being caught up in an air raid at Rokovoj Bereg as Sigint and EVA escape in the WiG.

Naked Snake appeared as a unique character in the Online Mode of Subsistence. His stats were similar to those in the main game. His CQC was identical to standard characters, although it stunned enemy players instantly. He also had a special taunt that involved smoking his cigar. In Sneaking Mission rules, the player who is Snake must steal a microfilm and take it to the goal to win, while the enemy players must keep the microfilm safe to win. Although he was stronger and faster than enemy players, he couldn't respawn if killed, and use of Stealth Camo had a shorter duration, with the stolen microfilm remaining visible if procured. Performing his taunt would also give away Snake's position due to the burning cigar.

Portable Ops[]

If Para-Medic is recruited in Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Big Boss can learn about El Dorado in an optional radio conversation with her. Upon hearing about golden knives, Big Boss expresses intrigue in them, since he could use it to distract the enemy during CQC, much to Para-Medic's annoyance. If the player utilizes a radio frequency in the Town area gained from interrogating a Soviet soldier, Big Boss will call in and fake his identity to HQ as a patrolman claiming that a suspicious individual was sighted at the south of the town and that they request backup.

He also appears in the expansion for Portable Ops, Portable Ops Plus, and also does the opening narration for the game. Besides his appearance in that game, he also was the main commanding officer-type character on the official site, where he supplies the new recruit (the website user) with the mission of locating various Kerotans across various parts in the Town. Afterward, Snake congratulates the user and supplies the user with an exclusive wallpaper, and was about to close the mission, but then discovered that more Kerotans have been spotted in the REX hangar, dispatching the recruit to locate them. Afterwards, he supplied the user with a second wallpaper, before stating that he has to depart, feeling his place was at a place for soldiers like himself. If the player ends the conversation prematurely, Big Boss will say "Hey, don't interrupt me!" before signing off.

Concept art and commentary for the scene where Elisa visits Big Boss inside his cell indicated that Ashley Wood, the illustrator behind the graphic novel cutscenes for the game, was forbidden to draw Snake's genitals during this time. However, he eventually revealed concept artwork nine years later that did depict his penis and noted it on his Instagram.[90]

"A former member of the Special Forces unit FOX, and a hero who once saved the world from nuclear war. Hailed as a true patriot by the U.S. President and given the title of Big Boss, he subsequently retired from FOX."
―Character description in Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops Plus

Super Smash Bros. Brawl[]

Big Boss appears (as Naked Snake) in Super Smash Bros. Brawl as both a trophy and sticker.

"As a member of the special-forces unit FOX, Naked Snake assassinated The Boss and ruined the Shagohod, a Soviet nuclear weapon. Years later, he was used to plant the seeds of Les Enfants Terribles, a project designed to create cloned super soldiers. The three Snakes - Liquid, Solid, and Solidus - were thus born. He would then embrace his name, Big Boss, and duel Solid Snake."
―Trophy description for Naked Snake
Naked Snake Smash

Naked Snake's camouflage suits used by Solid Snake in Super Smash Bros. Brawl.

His trophy depiction had him wearing bandages over his torso and arms, referring to the injuries he sustained both when fighting against The Boss in the ending of the Virtuous Mission, and when he was tortured by Colonel Volgin during Operation Snake Eater.

His appearance as a sticker grants the second highest possible Flinch Resistance of +160 in the Subspace Emissary Adventure Mode (only being beaten by The Boss' sticker by one point).

A sticker depicting his artwork from Metal Gear Solid/The Twin Snakes was also unlockable, granting its wearer an increase by 30 in Trophy drops.

During a Codec conversation about Toon Link, Solid Snake mentions to Mei Ling that "there's been more than one Snake," referring to his counterparts, Big Boss (Naked Snake), Liquid Snake, and Solidus Snake (and possibly Raiden and Venom Snake). Big Boss's deception in the original game is indirectly alluded to during the Codec conversation with Marth, when Snake tells Mei Ling that he can imagine what it's like to be betrayed by close ones, when she revealed Marth was victim to a similar betrayal.

Several of Naked Snake's camouflage uniforms appear as alternate costume options for Solid Snake. Brawl presents Solid Snake as a composite of the Metal Gear Solid 2 Solid Snake and the Metal Gear Solid 3 Naked Snake, as in Brawl, Snake has Naked Snake's beard and green bandanna, but his own sneaking suit from Metal Gear Solid 2.

Metal Gear Solid novelization[]

While Big Boss never physically appeared in the original Metal Gear Solid, he does so in the 2008 novelization by Raymond Benson, as one of Psycho Mantis's illusions. After Mantis enters Solid Snake's mind, Big Boss, Meryl Silverburgh, and Hal Emmerich, are trapped inside the mirrors of a funhouse, in a theme park where Solid Snake spent many of his childhood summers. While he was ultimately resigned to his fate, Big Boss begs Snake to input the detonation codes for Metal Gear REX, as otherwise the Sons of Big Boss would kill him.

Metal Gear Solid 4[]

In the Japanese version of Metal Gear Solid 4, Big Boss was voiced by Chikao Ōtsuka, the real life father of Akio Ōtsuka, who portrays Solid Snake and Big Boss's younger self. According to the Outcast Podcast and Famitsu, this was intentional, as Akio Ōtsuka and Chikao Ōtsuka had fallen out years before, so Kojima arranged for the two to work together. Coincidentally, one of Ōtsuka's prior roles, Dr. Weil from Mega Man Zero 4 (or more accurately the radio drama) had him saying "Not yet, it's not over yet!" at one point, which was a frequent line in the Metal Gear series starting with Big Boss in Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake. Concept art for the game indicated that Big Boss would have worn his old sneaking suit underneath his trench coat when meeting Snake, though this was changed to beige dress pants.

In the English version of Metal Gear Solid 4, Big Boss is voiced by Richard Doyle, rather than David Hayter.

Big Boss's gravestone in Metal Gear Solid 4 revealed that he had been born sometime in the 1930s (later confirmed to be circa 1935 in Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker), retconning him to be at least one decade younger than stated in previous games.[91]

The game's Virtual Range also features targets named "John Doe," one of Big Boss's aliases, and later the name of the Patriots' core AI.

At one point during the final battle with Liquid Ocelot, Old Snake's health bar identifies him as Naked Snake, due to reusing health bars from Metal Gear Solid 3.

Although the game depicts Big Boss wearing an eyepatch in Naked Son, the novelization for Metal Gear Solid 4 by Project Itoh mentions that Big Boss was not wearing his eyepatch at the time of his meeting with Snake at Arlington and his death.

Metal Gear Online[]

Although Big Boss himself didn't appear in Metal Gear Online, several items were released that referenced him, such as a STABO Harness, Combat Boots and supporters, and leather gloves, resembling the ones Big Boss, then known as Naked Snake, utilized during his missions into Tselinoyarsk. These items also came in various colors, as well as the option to use them in the coloring that was originally used by Naked Snake. In addition, Big Boss's eyepatch as well as a Crocodile Cap that was stated to have been formerly used by Naked Snake during his missions at Tselinoyarsk could also be equipped, although unlike the above items, these had a fixed color scheme.

Peace Walker[]

A promotional image for Peace Walker depicted Big Boss wearing a beret though he wears a bandana in the game itself. This was presumably to emphasize the similarities between Big Boss and Che Guevara, which is noted during the story. Big Boss also wore his fatigues collars up, similar to The Boss.

When Big Boss contacts Kazuhira Miller after escaping from the torture area, he briefly coughs violently due to the effects of the torture. According to David Hayter in a podcast, he actually had to force himself to vomit during recording in order to come up with those coughs.[92]

Big Boss's snake-shaped scar in Peace Walker resembles the tattoo of Escape from New York protagonist Snake Plissken. The game is also the first to define Big Boss's age, being 39 years old at the time of the Peace Walker Incident in November 1974. This was mentioned by KGB agent Vladimir Zadornov, when he remarked upon the irony of Big Boss being dead at the same age as Che Guevara, before attempting to execute him.[93] In briefing tapes relating to the non-canon Monster Hunter missions, Big Boss was revealed to have the ability to speak cat language, and, although shocked that he could actually understand what Trenya was saying, he implies that he may have learned how to speak the language from "picking up the local lingo."[94]

In addition, two Extra Ops missions in Peace Walker will portray Big Boss as being bisexual, giving him the opportunity to date either Paz Ortega Andrade or Kazuhira Miller (although the briefing for the latter part implied that he was caught off guard and unsure). Given the two missions' non-serious nature, as well as contradictory evidence between them and the story (such as Paz declaring twice in her third entry of her diary tape that she has absolutely no interest in Big Boss, and Miller's womanizing character throughout the story), neither mission is considered to be canon.

Big Boss is only usable in missions, and thus does not appear in Mother Base's staff.

Big Boss was the basis for three action figures in the Peace Walker line of the Square Enix toy-making subsidiary Play Arts Kai. Each were based on uniforms the player could obtain in the game (the Jungle Fatigues, the Sneaking Suit, and the Battle Dress). Of the three, two of the figures (Jungle Fatigues and Sneaking Suit) also came with a pass code that would unlock a soldier for Mother Base if inputted. Likewise, the Battle Dress was also customizable so it would resemble an MSF soldier.

During gameplay, Big Boss could push press the AI weapons Cocoon and Peace Walker, as well as ZEKE via a button prompt to counter their respective crush and stomp attacks. Similarly, in missions relating to the Mine Base, depending on whether the player is playing via single player (prior to completing the story line in the case of Main Ops) or via the game's CO-OP mode, Big Boss either is required to lift up a garage door that acted as the sole remaining obstacle between him and Peace Walker's hangar, or otherwise allow a friend to do it for him.

Yoji Shinkawa painted a picture of Big Boss for a small live audience as part of his "The Art of Yoji Shinkawa" exhibit at the Konami Style store.[95] This same painting was also used for the cover of the Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker Official Arts Book. Similarly, also "snuck in" T-shirts that bore this design into the 2011 Comic Con, with them reporting to their Facebook page that fans "infiltrate" to buy one and give positive reviews to Kojima.[96]

During the Extra Ops mission "Base Defense" for the Mine Base interior, Big Boss after defeating every 10 soldiers will contact the player via radio, marking the first time since Metal Gear that Big Boss contacts the player via radio (not counting the Portable Ops Plus official website).

Metal Gear Solid: Social Ops[]

Big Boss also appeared in the android/iOS game Metal Gear Solid: Social Ops, both as a major character and as several cards. As such, he also possessed the most bios in the game, containing separate entries for his Virtuous Mission appearance, his Operation Snake Eater appearance, and his Peace Walker Incident appearance.

Metal Gear Solid V[]

On June 6, 2013, Kojima confirmed that Kiefer Sutherland would be the voice and facial capture actor for Big Boss.[97]

Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes[]

MGS-GZ First picture

A promotional image of Big Boss, as featured in Ground Zeroes.

Big Boss is the main character of Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes. He returns in Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain as an incidental character. In the initial Ground Zeroes trailer, he appears to have a fully gray head of hair after taking off his NVGs, although Kojima stated that this was actually the result of lighting, rather than an indicator that he had gone gray.[98] In the actual gameplay demo, he still retains brown hair for the most part, although his beard has gone gray. Big Boss is also the playable character in the majority of the pseudo-historical Side Ops, which take place prior to the events of the main game.

Besides the main game, Big Boss is available as an officer-type character for the Mother Base development game on the Ground Zeroes app, released on the iPhone and Android systems. He is available from the start of the game, alongside Kazuhira Miller. Aside from this, his Naked Snake self is also an unlockable officer-type character, in this case being unlockable by doing a no-kill run during Ground Zeroes while connected to the app.

Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain[]

Big Boss later appeared in the VGA 2012 Phantom Pain trailer, under the guise of Ishmael. However, because it was initially stated that the game was being developed by a seemingly separate Swedish company called Moby Dick Studio, he wasn't explicitly identified as such. It was also revealed that while Akio Ōtsuka would reprise his role for the Japanese version, David Hayter would not for the English version. According to Hayter, Kojima had left him out of the decision.[99] This was not the first time where Hayter was considered for replacement, or that a different voice actor for Naked Snake was considered, as Kojima had intended for the character to be voiced by Kurt Russell (who had previously played Snake Plissken, one of the inspirations for Solid Snake and, to a lesser extent, Naked Snake/Big Boss) as early as Metal Gear Solid 3.[100]


Prior to the official announcement of Ground Zeroes, and by extension, The Phantom Pain, during GDC 2012, Big Boss appeared on two pictures on a Developers Sans Frontières website recruiting various game developers for the new Metal Gear game. The first picture, on the entry gate for the website, was Big Boss, stylized in a similar manner to Uncle Sam recruitment posters, pointing at the user with the words "BIG BOSS [sic] wants YOU! THE "NEXT" MGS DEVELOPMENT WITHOUT BORDERS GDC 2012 Booth #1914" below him. The second picture, contained in a "classified" manila folder, showed Big Boss wearing a poncho with a Rhodesian Ridgeback-like dog accompanying him, as well as a logo that was later revealed by Kojima to be the logo for "Diamond Dogs."

As Ishmael, Big Boss appeared in the GDC 2013 trailer for Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain. Although his true identity was initially a mystery, his English voice actor was discovered to be the same as that of Big Boss, Kiefer Sutherland.[101][102][103] The name Ishmael is a reference to the character from the novel Moby-Dick. The Phantom Pain trailer also featured an apparition resembling a burning whale, and the player character was referred to as Ahab, another major character in the novel.

Ishmael's likeness was later used for a mask worn by Kojima during an interview with GameTrailers TV host Geoff Keighley, while posing as the supposed creator of the game, Joakim Mogren, on March 28, 2013. The Ishmael mask was earlier hinted at in a Twitter post on Kojima's Twitter account, where he claimed that he was bringing "a secret weapon" to the GDC 2013 presentation. Similarly, an earlier interview on the March 14, 2013 episode of GameTrailers TV, which aired prior to the GDC 2013 announcement of The Phantom Pain, had "Mogren" wearing similar bandages to Ishmael, although he claimed that it was due to him getting into an "accident."[104]

In the Truth ending, after Venom Snake flips the tape "From Man Who Sold the World", he sees Operation Intrude N313, which is the name of the mission in the original Metal Gear. In the next scene, Venom sees himself in the mirror with a bloody face and larger horn, before punching the mirror. The exact time is deliberately vague, and Venom disappears into fog after smashing the mirror. Even though Venom Snake and Big Boss are established in the Truth ending and the Truth tapes to be separate entities, the iDroid transcripts for the ending and the tapes involving Big Boss still list him as "Snake" similar to Venom Snake. Largely because of this, it is left vague in the nuclear deterrence ending whether the speech given during the ending was supplied by Big Boss or Venom Snake.

Venom Snake, Big Boss's phantom and double.

Mother Base infiltration[]

The Gamescom 2014 Multiplayer trailer revealed that a player could infiltrate another player's Mother Base as Snake, with the other player's company being changed to Roughneck Raven, another PMC operating in the region, the Diamond Dogs logos being (mostly) replaced by that company's logo. It was also revealed that the owner of the base could ambush the infiltrator, though interestingly both appear as Snake, with the second wearing a different camouflage uniform.

Allusions to previous games[]

Big Boss's rivalry with Ocelot throughout Metal Gear Solid 3 is somewhat akin to that of siblings. Gene also referred to himself and Big Boss as being "like brothers" during Portable Ops. These relationships mirror the one between Solid Snake and Liquid Snake in the original Metal Gear Solid. On a somewhat related note, Kojima, in his commentary of the former game, noted that Ocelot and Liquid's Japanese names rhymed, further comparing Naked Snake and Ocelot's rivalry with Solid and Liquid Snake's rivalry.

In Peace Walker, Huey Emmerich asks Big Boss if he would ever fight a clone of himself, using it as a metaphor for nuclear deterrence. Big Boss answers "I wouldn't want to do that, no telling who'd survive."[105] This is an obvious allusion to the future conflict between Big Boss and his clone Solid Snake, in which the former is defeated.

E3 Battle[]

In May 2012, Big Boss, identified as Naked Snake, appeared as a participant in the Konami sponsored web event E3 Battle, where he beat out Ash Lambert from the 1996 game Vandal Hearts in the first round. He proceeded to face off against, and defeated Murphy Pendleton from Silent Hill: Downpour in the second round. He proceeded to face off against, and defeated, Psycho Mantis in the third round. He then faced off against and defeated Solid Snake in the fourth round. He proceeded to face off against, and defeated Raiden in the semifinals. He will face off against Metal Gear REX in the final round of the event, in a no-holds barred beat-down.[106] Naked Snake managed to defeat REX and became the champion of the E3 Battle.

Metal Gear (1987, as 'Big Boss')
Founder of the Special Forces Unit, FOXHOUND, among others. Survivor of countless battlefields.
―Naked Snake's bio in E3 Battle

Versus Battle[]

Big Boss appeared in Versus Battle twice, first fighting against Metal Gear REX and later FOXHOUND under the name Big Boss, and also under the name Naked Snake while fighting against Solid Snake.

Arguably the Greatest Warrior Ever
Nukes? Cigars?
FOXHOUND founder and genetic father of Solid, Liquid, & Solidus Snake, Big Boss earned his name by defeating The Boss in Operation Snake Eater
―Big Boss's bio on Versus Battle; against REX
The Original Snake, Taught by The Boss
Disillusioned from Battle & Betrayal
Although given the nickname “Big Boss” after defeating The Boss, he continued to call himself Naked Snake in respect to The Boss’s skill
―Naked Snake's bio on Versus Battle
Too Numerous To Name
EVA, Cigars
Naked Snake became known as Big Boss after defeating The Boss in battle, and was the genetic father of Solid Snake, Liquid Snake, and Solidus Snake
―Big Boss in Versus Battle; against FOXHOUND

Metal Gear Survive[]

Big Boss appears in the non-canon game Metal Gear Survive in the flashback of the Ground Zeroes Incident.

Accessory MGS3BDU

Aside from this, he also was alluded to in the flavor text for the Event Episode "The Encounter: Begin 1964 Event!", and his Jungle Fatigues are an unlockable item in the same event at the price of 5000 Battle Points earned during the event period.

References in other media[]

Owing to the popularity of the Metal Gear series, Big Boss has made cameos in various media, some with direct relation to the games he was currently in as crossover material.

Monster Hunter Portable 3rd[]

As part of a crossover promotion between Peace Walker and Monster Hunter Portable 3rd, male players can receive a Big Boss outfit in a special quest. Female players receive The Boss outfit, while Felyne comrades get a Solid Snake outfit.[107][108][109]

LittleBigPlanet 3[]

Big Boss appears as a costume in a Ground Zeroes-themed DLC pack for LittleBigPlanet 3.

Archie Comics[]

Although Big Boss does not appear in any Archie Comics stories directly, his Metal Gear Solid 3 incarnation appears as a Halloween costume for the character Roll Light of the Mega Man serial in a Halloween 2013-related blog by Ryan Jampole. Her associated quote for the costume was also a direct reference to the start of the Virtuous Mission segment of the same game.[110]

I Wanna Be the Guy[]

Big Boss, more specifically his appearance in Metal Gear 2, makes a brief cameo in the end credits for the freeware game I Wanna Be the Guy, as part of a series of portraits depicting the previous "guys", with his portrait being based on his appearance in the original MSX2 version of Metal Gear 2 rather than his appearance in the re-released versions of the game.

Super Bomberman R[]

Naked Snake and his son Solid Snake appeared as downloadable characters in Super Bomberman R. Both characters are voiced by David Hayter, marking the first time he voiced the characters in a video game since Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker and Metal Gear Solid 4, respectively.

Pawapuro Appli[]

Naked Snake - Pawapuro Appli

Naked Snake was added as a playable Power Pro in Pawapuro Appli along with some other Konami characters on January 22, 2024.

Naming controversy[]

Much controversy and debate surrounds Big Boss's real name. When Metal Gear Solid 3 was released, players safely assumed his real name was Jack, as The Boss and Major Zero called him by this name on several occasions. In addition, a voice casting sheet leaked before Metal Gear Solid 3's release stated that Big Boss's real name was Jack.

However, early on in the game, Big Boss is asked by Para-Medic what his real name is, to which he responds "John Doe" with Para-Medic replying "and they call you Jack for short?" Due to slightly tongue-in-cheek nature of the conversation, as well as Para-Medic jokingly responding that her real name is Jane Doe, most initially thought it was nothing more than a joke. However, at the end of Metal Gear Solid 3, Big Boss also tells Ocelot that his name is John, and in Japan, a Limited Edition release of Metal Gear Solid 3 included a book called R which stated Big Boss's real name was John Doe. The master Patriot AI, which is accessed via Big Boss's biometric data, is also named John Doe (although it is also possible that JD was named as such as a reference to the fact that the last leaders of the Patriots were "no one" (i.e. AIs)). In Peace Walker, when Snake tells Gálvez that Big Boss is just a codename the CIA made up, Gálvez then asks if he would prefer it if he called him John.

To further add to the confusion, the Metal Gear Solid 4 Database listed Big Boss's name as simply "John."

Kojima was asked in session 08 of the Kojima Productions Report Podcast which helped celebrate the North American release of Portable Ops whether Big Boss's real name was Jack or John. Kojima answered by saying that it could be both since both names can be applicable as the name "Jack" in English is the diminutive form of the name "John."

The name John Doe is used as a colloquialism when the true name of a male is unknown or is being intentionally concealed.

To a lesser extent, there was also a minor controversy surrounding the Vic Boss nickname that Big Boss possessed in Peace Walker, whether it was a South American dialect pronunciation of Big Boss or whether it was shorthand for Boss of Victory. However, the dialogue bubble included in the final version of the game makes clear that the Vic Boss was meant to the latter. Coincidentally, "Vic Boss" sounded similar to Vic Viper, the first spaceship used by Dr. Venom in the first Gradius game (also made by Konami).[111]

While Big Boss's clones are most often referred to as his sons in the series, they are biologically more similar to identical twins, since they share more genes with him than children born by normal sexual reproduction.





Metal Gear

Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake

Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty

Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater
Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater 3D
Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater Pachislot

Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops

Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots
Metal Gear Solid 4 Database

Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker

Metal Gear Solid: Social Ops

Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes
Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain

Super Smash Bros. Brawl

Commemorative events

See also[]


  1. ^ In the English version of Metal Gear Solid, Liquid Snake tells Solid Snake that Big Boss was in a coma when the Les Enfants Terribles project took place. In the Japanese version, it's simply stated that Big Boss was left sterile due to a combat injury.


Smallwikipedialogo This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Big Boss. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the Metal Gear Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

  1. ^ a b c d e f Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake - User's Manual, Konami Corporation (1990).
    Translated version available at G&T Soft
  2. ^ METAL GEAR SOLID (Japanese). Konami Digital Entertainment. Retrieved on 2020-05-20.
  3. ^ a b c d Metal Gear Solid 4 Database ("Big Boss"), Kojima Productions (2008).
  4. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Snake (Big Boss): Call me Snake. // MSF Soldier: Oh, uh, sorry... Vic Boss! // Snake: Listen up. For us, there is no victory.
  5. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Amanda Valenciano Libre: Vic Boss! // MSF/FSLN Soldiers: Vic Boss -- Vic Boss -- Vic Boss! Vic Boss! Vic Boss! Vic Boss! Vic Boss! Vic Boss!
  6. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker (English), Kojima Productions (2010).
    "Vic Boss" is an abbreviation of "Boss of Victory," translated from Japanese Shōri no Bosu (勝利VICTORYのボス?).
  7. ^ Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Mission Log: "[The terrorists] are demanding that the US government turn over the remains of "The Legendary Soldier" Big Boss and they are saying that if their demands are not met within 24 hours, they'll launch a nuclear weapon."
  8. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4 Database ("Legendary Mercenary"), Kojima Productions (2008). [1]
  9. ^ a b c Metal Gear - User's Manual, Konami Corporation (1987).
  10. ^ The Truth behind METAL GEAR SOLID: The Chronicle (Japanese). Konami Digital Entertainment (2012). Retrieved on 2017-12-27.
  11. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    The Boss: Talk to me. Let me hear your voice. // Naked Snake: It's been 5 years, 72 days, and 18 hours.
    The Virtuous Mission took place on August 24.
  12. ^ Naked Snake, during a radio conversation with Para-Medic, reveals this.
  13. ^ 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Naked Snake: I've got experience sniping in urban and marine environments.
  14. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Major Zero: You don't like snakes? // Naked Snake: What do you mean? // Zero: You've eaten one before, haven't you? // Snake: In survival training. // Zero: I'm glad to hear that. // Snake: I don't know if I'd ever order one in a restaurant, but...
  15. ^ Metal GearSolid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Naked Snake wears these ribbons prior to the award ceremony in which he is bestowed with the Distinguished Service Cross Medal and the title of Big Boss by President Johnson.
  16. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Major Zero: So, how does it feel to be a patient in one of the most advanced ICUs in the world? // Naked Snake: Would you do me a favor and tell the suits about visiting hours? I'll never get better with them assaulting me day and night with their questions. // Zero: Must be part of the top brass' inquiry. // Snake: More like an interrogation. According to them, I'm a traitor and an accomplice to The Boss' defection. // Zero: They're just looking for a scapegoat. // Snake: Does that mean they're after you too? // Zero: Let's just say neither one of us is going to be made a national hero out of this.
  17. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Para-Medic: [EVA's] right Snake. You should get some sleep. Although in your condition, you really ought to be back in the ICU...
  18. ^
  19. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    Jonathan: Your mentor... the one who taught you the art of battle... Who was she? // Naked Snake (Big Boss): They called her The Boss. I killed her. // Jonathan: The Boss... The legendary soldier? Then Snake, you must be Big Boss. You're the hero who killed Colonel Volgin at Groznyj Grad.
  20. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss reveals this to Para-Medic in a radio conversation, after she has been recruited.
  21. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    Null: I remember now... Big Boss... Even then, you were the one who stopped me. I was raised by adults to be a tool of war. But you defeated me. Watched over me.
  22. ^ Snake explains this to Roy Campbell in a radio conversation.
  23. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    Para-Medic: I don't know. Any members of FOX who didn't join the rebellion were killed. The unit is in shambles. // Snake: I don't believe this. // Para-Medic: I know how you feel. You know why the military suspects you, don't you, Snake? Whoever started this mess managed to gather FOX members specializing in solo missions and killed all those who opposed. The only soldier who could have pulled that off is you. // Snake: ...Done in by my own overblown reputation.
  24. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker - Heita to Kazuhira no Blues (Love Box), Konami Digital Entertainment (2010).
  25. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker - Heiwa to Kazuhira no Blues (Sauna), Konami Digital Entertainment (2010).
  26. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker - Heiwa to Kazuhira no Blues (Ultimate Combined Weapon), Konami Digital Entertainment (2010).
  27. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker - Heita to Kazuhira No Blues (Mission Complete), Konami Digital Entertainment (2010).
  28. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 3: Preparing Staff for the Inspection
    Big Boss: About the inspection, what do we tell the men? // Kazuhira Miller: The truth. What else? The one thing we don’t need to worry about is anyone here spilling the beans about ZEKE. // Big Boss: Good point. What about the Sandinistas? There’s still quite a few of them left on the base. // Miller: I hate to say it, but it won’t look good having Soviet-bloc personnel here. The problem is moving a group that size in a hurry will look even worse. // Big Boss: At least Amanda is on assignment in Cuba. They’d recognize her. She should stay put for now. // Miller: All civilians save Huey will have to return to their countries. // Big Boss: Even your Parisian [Cécile Cosima Caminandes]? // Miller: Of course. We’ll get her whatever paper she needs. Dr. Strangelove’s departure came at a perfect time. The less ZEKE-related staff here, the better. // Big Boss: Wait, she left?! // Miller: That’s right, you were away on a mission. She left last week. There’s nothing cooking in AI weapons research, and ZEKE is complete. There was really no reason for her to hang around. // Big Boss: I’m surprised Huey let her go that easily. // Miller: Yeah, his crush on Strangelove was never much of a secret, huh? He followed her everywhere while ZEKE was in development. Boy, would she get pissed. But he does have a lot on his mind right now. “I’ve got bigger issues to deal with.” That’s what he said. // Big Boss: That’s the spirit, Huey.
  29. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 1: Nuclear Inspection demand by the IAEA
    Kazuhira Miller: Snake, yesterday we received official communication from the IAEA. It says: “It has come to our attention that your organization recently purchased nuclear fuel from Uzbekistan authorities. We request permission to inspect your facilities.” // Naked Snake (Big Boss): What a load of bullshit… // Miller: Yeah. They’re after Metal Gear ZEKE’s nuclear warhead. I’m betting this is payback from Cipher after Paz’s leak. // Big Boss: Using the UN. // Miller: There’s no telling how much influence they have. But the IAEA can only do inspections in countries that are partied to the NPT. // Big Boss: And we’re not a country. // Miller: Exactly. We haven’t signed a safeguards agreement with the IAEA over peaceful nuclear use, and we’re not obligated to report any nuclear material we have, nor information about any nuclear facilities. The IAEA has no authority to inspect us. // Big Boss: But despite all that… // Miller: That nuke’s our last line of defense. We don’t want to announce we have it until the world is preparing to wipe us off the map. Until then, we let everyone think we’re just a private army with conventional firepower. // Big Boss: What’s Huey’s take? // Miller: That the problem’s how to hide the nuke and Metal Gear. But I gotta tell you, he was all for it. // Big Boss: I see. But there’s no way we can have the IAEA poking around here. // Miller: So what do we do? Ignore them? // Big Boss: Send them an official letter of refusal. Say we’re a private organization and we’ve done nothing to attract this suspicion. // Miller: You’ve got it.
  30. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 2: Allowing the Nuclear Inspection
    Huey Emmerich: We’ve finished ZEKE’s waterproofing reinforcement yesterday. The day after tomorrow, we’ll be done installing the main depth control tank, the compressed air tank, and the attitude control propeller pod. // Kazuhira Miller: Huey… // Huey: If the underwater test goes well, next week we’ll try the 300 ft. seabed depth. // Miller: Drop the act, Huey. How did we end up agreeing to the nuclear inspection? // Huey: …Because after you sent that letter, I told them “after careful reconsideration, we’ve agreed to your request.” And frankly, we should be inspected. This is our chance. If they come and go without discovering the nuke, we can tell the world we’re clean. Of course, it’s risky, and we’ll have to make sure everything’s perfect, but it’ll be worth it. // Big Boss: Huey, can they do an inspection without going through the Board of Governors? // Miller: We contacted the IAEA’s admin branch, and they said there’s no record of us being brought up at any of the board’s meetings. Huey: I’d say they’d… probably do a preliminary inspection to determine whether we should be referred to the board. So it’s bound to be a small inspection team, and they won’t be here that long. Don’t worry, leave everything to me. // Big Boss: Has the media gotten wind of this? // Huey: Yeah. Two major western networks want to do stories on us. I planned on saying yes. // Miller: What?! You want to broadcast this place to the world?! // Huey: That’s why I agreed to the inspection. This is a golden opportunity. We can use the media to “prove” to the world we don’t have a nuke. Besides, even if we said “no,” it would just be delaying the inevitable. // Big Boss: (groans in irritation) Kaz, our hands are tied now. Start getting the place ready. // Huey: Thanks, boss. // Big Boss: Don’t get the wrong idea. You set it up so that any more changes of heart would arouse suspicion, that’s all. // Miller: (Heh) ZEKE stays, but we’ll have to move all other AFVs to shore. Any potential troublemakers can go with them for some mandatory R-and-R. Sound good, boss? // Big Boss: Just do it.
  31. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 4: Word of Paz's Survival
    Kazuhira Miller: Ten days ago, we got reports that Paz was still alive. // Big Boss: She survived… // Miller: She was rescued by Belizean fishermen who found her drifting in the Caribbean. Big Boss: So what’s the plan? Silence her before we’re compromised? // Miller: No, I’ve got something else in mind. Our “friends” at Cipher suspect Paz could be a double agent. She’s being held for interrogation at a camp on the southern tip of Cuba. // Big Boss: Black site. Nice. A slice of American pie on Communist soil. And out of U.S. legal jurisdiction. // Miller: The upcoming inspection of Mother Base has to be connected somehow. The timing’s too perfect. // Big Boss: The UN’s nuclear inspection… // Miller: My guess is they’re trying to corroborate Paz’s leak. // Big Boss: We’re an army without a nation. // Miller: Word of our capabilities gets out, and we’ll have the whole world out to shut us down. Having an American private intelligence agency involved is bad news. Cipher’s the ones who sent Paz to us in the first place. // Big Boss: She knows their true nature. // Miller: Right. Paz is our only link to Cipher. If she’s still alive, we need her on our side. If not us, who else is going to rescue that bitch?! // Big Boss: When do we do it? // Miller: The inspection comes first. We’ll deal with this afterwards. // Big Boss: Do the men know? // Miller: Word has started to spread. The information came from Cuba through Amanda. One of the base personnel used to belong to el Frente. I’ll tell everyone we don’t concern ourselves with the survival of enemy spies. We need them focused on the inspection. And if we get her back here and she isn’t… cooperative, there’s still plenty of room for her in the ocean. // Big Boss: Works for me. What about Chico. He had a chance to stop Paz from hijacking ZEKE and he blew it. He’s carried that guilt ever since. Kid really did care about her. // Miller: Chico… It’s hard to say how he’ll react. // Big Boss: Have Amanda call him out to Cuba. He shouldn’t be here right now. // Miller: Good idea. They haven’t seen each other in a while. A little time with big sis, and he’ll forget all about you-know-who.
  32. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 5: Chico Vanishes
    Kazuhira Miller: What?! Still no sign of Chico? // Big Boss: What’s going on? // Miller: (to Big Boss in a whisper) It’s Amanda in Cuba. A resupply package arrived, but Chico wasn’t with it. (To Amanda in normal tone) Relax, Amanda. I’m sure he’s just… exploring Havana or something. First time in a big city. Could have gotten carried away. // Big Boss: Kaz, wait! The boat Chico was on, did it stop anywhere before it got to Havana? // Miller: Yeah, it had to refuel at Santiago de Cuba… You don’t think… oh shit… You’ve got to be kidding me! He does this NOW?! // Big Boss: It’s sixty miles from Santiago to the prison camp. Chico used to cross the mountains with the older Sandinistas like it was nothing. He’ll make that in three days. // Miller: Still, even if he does find his way there… // Big Boss: You know how reckless he can be. Chico thinks we’ve abandoned Paz, that’s why he’s doing this. // Miller: (picks up the phone and starts dialing) We’ll start by having the Intel detachment in Cuba look for him. We can’t let him be captured. (phone outbound ringtone is heard)
  33. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).
    Info > Pre-mission Brief: Mission Background & Intel > Brief 6: Chico's Distress call
    Chico: (transmission) East to a big building. It’s an old… grassy facility. That’s where we are. …Help me, Snake. // Kazuhira Miller: It’s a setup! // Big Boss: We have no choice. // Miller: Yeah. If Chico talks, he could blow the nuke cover-up! We can’t hold off until the inspection’s over. // Big Boss: When can we be ready? // Miller: It will take at least sixteen hours to confirm the flight path and prep a bird. The Intel Unit has started reconning the area. // Big Boss: …Sounds like I have to miss the inspection. // Miller: Boss, we’ll just have to send someone else to get them out… // Big Boss: No! …I’ll go. // Miller: …Yeah, Chico and Paz would only take orders from you, anyway. We can’t go taking on those Marines at the base head-on. It’s got to be off the radar, and it got to be you. Big Boss: Hold down the fort, Kaz.
  34. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4 Database ("Sniper Wolf"), Kojima Productions (2008).
  35. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Liquid Snake: That's right [Solid Snake]... The Genome Soldiers that you've been killing are our brothers, with the same genes as ours. // Solid Snake: The Genome Soldiers!? // Liquid: That's right. They are our brothers, created artificially through the alignment of nucleotides to mimic our father's [Big Boss] genes. They too are the product of numerous sacrifices. // [...] Snake: So then...the so called Gulf War Babies that have been reported by Gulf War veterans are... // Liquid: Yes... They too are our brothers and sisters.
  36. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Solid Snake: Never give up. Fight until the end. Always believe that you will succeed, even when the odds are against you. Those are your words.
  37. ^ a b Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Solid Snake: Any family? // Naomi Hunter: That's not a very happy topic for me. // Snake: I don't have any family. No wait, there was a man who said that he was my father... // Naomi: Where is he? // Snake: Dead. By my own hand. // Roy Campbell: Big Boss. // Naomi: What!? Big Boss!? I had no idea. // Campbell: There was no way you could. It happened in Zanzibar [Land] six years ago. Only Snake and I know the real truth of what happened there. // Naomi: So, is it true? Was Big Boss really your father? // Snake: That's what he said. That's all I know. // Naomi: And you were able to kill him, knowing that? // Snake: Yup.
  38. ^ Metal Gear (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Operation Intrude N313. Infiltrate the enemy's base Outer Heaven and destroy the ultimate weapon, Metal Gear! Let's go over the details first. Make contact with Gray Fox, and find the location of the ultimate weapon, Metal Gear.
  39. ^ Metal Gear (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Get in the truck on the right! ...Over.
  40. ^ Metal Gear (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Enter the door on your left. ...Over.
  41. ^ Metal Gear (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Solid Snake! Abort the mission. Return immediately. This is an order!!
  42. ^ Metal Gear (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss (Venom Snake): Solid Snake! I've been expecting you... ...I am the supreme commander of the FOXHOUND unit... And... The leader of the fortress of Outer Heaven, Big Boss! I gave this mission to you, a rookie, thinking I could use you to fool the rest of the world... But you were too good. You went too far! Solid Snake! I'm not going down alone. I'm taking you with me! Prepare to die!
  43. ^ a b Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Solid Snake: What are you saying, Schneider? // Kyle Schneider: ...Snake, after you destroyed Metal Gear, NATO launched a massive bombing campaign against Outer Heaven. All of us Resistance fighters...and the children of Outer Heaven...they didn't care about any of us. There was no escape from the flames... They died like animals in a cage. // Snake: I... can't believe this... // Schneider: Think about it. The children of Outer Heaven were originally orphans and refugees from all over the world. They were a liability... and NATO didn't want to deal with them... // Snake: ...No... // Schneider: You're no different. They'll forget about you, too... But he wasn't like them... // Snake: Who....? // Schneider: He came... and saved us from annihilation. He forgave us for what we'd done. He gave us a new land to call home... A new family... // Snake: He did...? You mean... // Schneider: Snake, you'll understand soon... what a wonderful man [Big Boss] is... Snake... I owe you a debt. There's no hate between us. I'll tell you where Dr. Marv is. It's what [Big Boss] would want me to do... Find the man who's guarding the cell where Dr. Marv is being held. Follow that man...and he should lead you straight to the cell. You can tell him by his green beret. He should be on the first floor. Got that? A green beret. Follow the man in the green beret!
  44. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: You saw those children, didn't you? Every one is a victim of a war somewhere of [sic] the world. And they'll make fine soldiers in the next war. Start a war, fan its flames, create victims... Then save them, train them... And feed them back onto the battlefield. It's a perfectly logical system. In this world of ours, conflict never ends. And neither does our purpose... Our raison d'etre.
  45. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Kid: The one-eyed man is like our daddy. He doesn't like grown-ups.
  46. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    George Kasler: Big Boss... There's not a mercenary in the world who hasn't heard of him. He's a [sic] like a god, a living legend. // Solid Snake: I already know all that! I need new information! // Kasler: OK, OK... but this is only a rumor, understand? Three [sic] years ago, when Outer Heaven fell, Big Boss was seriously wounded. He almost died... He lost both hands, both feet, his right eye, and his right ear. But somehow... he survived. Then an Eastern bloc despot took an interest in him. Probably couldn't resist getting his hands on a soldier of Big Boss's caliber. They decided to use Big Boss as a guinea pig in Madnar's snatcher project. I don't know the details, but apparently it involved turning him into a cyborg. Now he's half man and half machine. Hard to believe, I know. But if it is true, Snake, you're way out of your league. None of your current techniques is [sic] going to so much as put a scratch on him. Snake... give it up... There's no way you can win this time... Over and out.
  47. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Kid: The one-eyed man told us to tell him if we saw a man wearing green clothes.
  48. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: Snake... Welcome to Zanzibar Land... I knew you'd come back to me. [...] Once you've been on the battlefield, tasted the exhilaration, the tension... it all becomes part of you. Once you've awakened the warrior within... it never sleeps again. You crave ever bigger tensions, ever bigger thrills. As a mercenary, I'd think you would have realized that by now. You care nothing for power, or money, or even sex. The only thing that satisfies your cravings... is WAR! All I've done is give you a place for it. I've given you a reason to live.
  49. ^ Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (re-release), Kojima Productions (2006).
    (Big Boss is engulfed in flames) // Big Boss: Snake!! It's not over yet... It's not... over... yet... // (Big Boss collapses on the floor) // Big Boss: It's not... over... yet... Snake... Sn... a...
  50. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Solid Snake: How can you still be alive? // Big Boss: That body Liquid burned on the Volta... Wasn't mine. That was the body... Of a clone. Solidus. [...] He was a perfect clone. Zero, and the proxy AIs that came after him, were convinced that Solidus was me.
  51. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Big Boss: Ever since the day I killed The Boss, I was already dead.
  52. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    A radio call to Campbell while playing as one of the playable soldiers shows this.
  53. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing Files > Briefing Library > Miller > The Fundamentals of Stealth > Dressing for the Mission > Naked
  54. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004)
    Colonel Yevgeny Borisovitch Volgin: You're mine! Son of The Boss!
  55. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010)
    Snake (Big Boss): Amanda. Join my unit [Militaires Sans Frontières] until you've healed up. // Amanda Valenciano Libre: Your... Unit? Who are you? Why are you here? Snake: ... I'm Snake. Serpiente. // Amanda: Snake? Could it be... The Great Cacique... Has come to lead us... Patria Libre O Morir... // (Amanda loses consciousness)
  56. ^ Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Sniper Wolf: But then... he appeared. My hero... Saladin... he took me away from all that... // Solid Snake: Saladin? ...You mean Big Boss?
  57. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
    Big Boss: You're pretty young. // Elisa: Well, you were out on the battlefield when you were my age, weren't you, Snake? Or should I say... Big Boss?
  58. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing Files > Briefing Library > Paz > Central Heredia > AI Lab:
    Naked Snake (Big Boss): What's so special about that [the Stone Spheres of Costa Rica]? // Paz Ortega Andrade: What if I told you some of them are nearly perfect spheres? And that they were carved out of granite, which is quite a hard substance. // Snake: Hmm, could be good for laying a trap. And if they're spherical, they'd roll easily, too... // Paz: Snake...
  59. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing Files > Briefing Library > Cécile > France > National Anthem:
    Naked Snake (Big Boss): There's one other image I have of France: the national anthem.
  60. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing Files > Briefing Library > Cécile > France > Foreign Legion:
    Naked Snake (Big Boss): Heaven on earth, huh... The only image I have of France is the Foreign Legion. // Cécile Cosima Caminandes: Th-that is how you view France?!
  61. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006)
    Para-Medic: You know why the military suspects you [for causing FOX's rebellion], don't you, Snake? Whoever started this mess managed to gather FOX members specializing in solo missions and killed all those who opposed. The only soldier who could have pulled that off is you. // Snake: ...Done in by my own overblown reputation.
  62. ^ Metal Gear, Konami Corporation (1987).
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Enemy Uniform? What, like a girl's high school uniform? ...Over.
  63. ^ Metal Gear, Konami Corporation (1987)
    Big Boss: This is Big Boss... Cardboard box? Are you moving house or something? ...Over.
  64. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Kojima Productions (2004).
    Naked Snake states this to Para-Medic in an optional radio conversation during Operation Snake Eater.
  65. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Quotes are randomly assigned to recruited MSF soldiers, so they may not always appear on certain playthroughs.
  66. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing files > Huey > [2]
  67. ^ Managing to embark on Operation Snake Eater and successfully complete his mission despite only a week after suffering numerous injuries during the Virtuous Mission; Enduring a battle against The Fury while the area they were in burned from the flames of the latter's rocket fuel-laced flamethrower.
  68. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004)
    Colonel Volgin: This is where the fun really begins! My body carries an electric charge of 10 million volts. Let's see how you like this! (he begins to electrocute Snake)
  69. ^ Enduring a brutal beating at the hands of Colonel Volgin; twice enduring Cunningham's torture at two non-consecutive points; enduring electrical torture at the hands of Dr. Strangelove;
  70. ^ Twice surviving a large fall into a body of water in Tselinoyarsk; Surviving the ICBMG's missile launch despite standing close to ground zero of the ignition blast; Evading the blast of a tank shell at El Cadalso despite having little reaction time beforehand; surviving the fall from the mountainous Costa Rican-Nicaraguan border, a fall that mortally injured the horse he was riding; surviving being burned alive in Zanzibar Land.
  71. ^ Metal Gear Solid Guns of the Patriots novelization by Project Itoh (English, 2012).
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^ Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Liquid Snake: Love!? It's hate!! He always told me I was inferior and now I'll have my revenge!!
  75. ^ Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes, Konami Computer Entertainment, Japan (2001)
    Liquid Snake: Ha! Love!? It's hate!! His [Big Boss] choosing me, knowingly, to be the inferior one. For this, I want revenge!
  76. ^ Metal Gear Solid (English version), Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Liquid Snake: But father was wounded in combat and already in a coma when they brought him in. So they created us from his cells... with a combination of 20th century analog cloning and the Super Baby Method.
  77. ^ Metal Gear Solid (Japanese version), Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Liquid Snake: だが親父は戦場で負傷?すでに不能者だった?だから俺達は親父の体細胞を使って造られた。前世紀のアナログクローン技術とスーパーベイビー法によって。[But an injury father sustained in combat left him sterile. So they created us from his cells... with a combination of 20th century analog cloning and the Super Baby Method.]
  78. ^ Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2001).
    In the Darkness of Shadow Moses: The Unofficial Truth: "The man selected to serve as the genetic template for the [Les Enfants Terribles] project was the most famous living mercenary of the time, Big Boss. Big Boss was, however, incapable of reproducing, a result of past war injuries. As a result, his body cells were harvested for a cloning attempt."
  79. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Official Mission Handbook, Millennium Books (1998).
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^ Metal Gear: Ghost Babel
    -Stage 5-3 clear-
    No. 4: Outer Heaven - formerly known as Galuade. Do you know the truth behind that mission where Solid Snake destroyed Metal Gear and killed Big Boss to become a national hero? Solid Snake, a rookie FOXHOUND commando, infiltrates Outer Heaven alone, rescues fellow FOXHOUND member Gray Fox from the clutches of the enemy, and together they destroy Metal Gear. Solid Snake then takes down Big Boss, the commander of Outer Heaven... That's the basic story known the public. There are of course, parts that were edited out -- such as the fact that Big Boss was Solid Snake's biological father. He sent for Solid Snake with the intention of fighting to the death with his own son, but it isn't clear whether Snake knew anything about it... Whichever the case, Snake took his father's life with his own hands, and that is proof of his strength as well as his weakness... And something you could not accomplish...
  83. ^ Metal Gear: Ghost Babel
    -Stage 10-3 clear-
    No. 4: As you well know, the development of Metal Gear began in Outer Heaven. The project fell under the auspices of the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence and its director Steven Gardner, but the idea itself, for a bipedal vehicle that would launch a nuclear strike from anywhere on the planetary surface, was apparently conceived by Big Boss, Outer Heaven's commander-in-chief. The technology wasn't there at that point, but the concept of an invisible missile from a rail gun seems to have been already planned by Big Boss. And the idea became a reality in American hands following Outer Heaven -- Metal Gear is the phantom of Big Boss, in a sense. It's no wonder Snake is so obsessed with the destruction of Metal Gear; to him, it truly is the 'evil past'. But to us, it's the gospel to a new world -- a blessing.
  84. ^ Metal Gear: Ghost Babel
    -Stage 6-2 clear-
    No. 4: As the 'General' said, Outer Heaven was conceived as an unofficial military reserve to keep various anti-American forces in check. But what he didn't say was that he himself was once an Outer Heaven mercenary, and a fervent disciple of Big Boss. His connections with the U.S. government date back to that period. After Outer Heaven fell, he drifted from country to country -- then came back, this time as the 'big boss' himself. Maybe all this explains why he chose Outer Heaven of all places to resurrect Galuade...
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^ a b
  89. ^
  90. ^ 兵隊 on Twitter: "MPOのムービーシーンの作画を担当したアシュレイ・ウッドさん、Instagramにスネークの股間をエルザが見てしまうシーンの絵コンテをアップされていたのですが、おてぃんてぃんを足して描いてしまうお茶目なところがあるんですね。" / Twitter
  91. ^ Big Boss was stated to have "died" in his 70s in 1999, according to his official character biography for Metal Gear Solid. Also, "Liquid Snake" claimed in Metal Gear Solid 2 that Big Boss was in his late fifties at the time of the Les Enfants Terribles project.
  92. ^ [3]
  93. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Vladimir Zadornov: Dead at age 39... Just like El Che.
    The events of the game take place in November, 1974.
  94. ^ Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
    Briefing files > Chico > The Legend of Isla del Monstrua > Trenya
    Snake: I'm still having trouble believing it. I never thought I'd be talking to an animal one day. What a world. // Chico: Amazing you could understand its language. // Snake: Picking up the local lingo is one of the basics of intelligence work.
  95. ^ Yoji Shinkawa Live Art Show – Video/Photos
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  103. ^ Kiefer Sutherland will play Snake in Metal Gear Solid 5. Dusty Cartridge. Retrieved on 2013-06-07.
  104. ^ Joakim Mogren interview Phantom Pain - YouTube
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    Briefing files > Huey > Nuclear Deterrence > Nuclear Deterrence Theory
  106. ^
    Metal Gear Solid
    Our Konami E3 Battle has come to its final match-up! Who will take home the prestigious title of mightiest Konami character in this no-holds barred beatdown between the legendary soldier Naked Snake and bi-pedal tank of mass destruction METAL GEAR RAY? Your votes will decide!
    Vote now at:— with Juan Vicente Blendo Moncada.
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